Soils of mixed forests zones, posdolous soils and relief features

Soils of mixed forests zones, greeting soils and relief features

Various trees grow in mixed forests. Forest-forming species are both broad-leaved (maple, oak, linden, birch, hornbeam) and coniferous (pine, larch, fir, spruce). Soddy-podzolic, brown and gray forest soils are formed in such natural zones. They have a fairly high level of humus content, which is due to the growth of a large number of herbs in these forests. Iron and clay particles are washed out of them.

Soddy-podzolic soils

In coniferous-broad-leaved forests, sod-podzolic type land is widely formed. A significant humus-accumulative horizon is formed in the forest, and the turf layer shows a small power. Ash particles and nitrogen, magnesium and calcium, iron and potassium, aluminum and hydrogen, as well as other elements are involved in the process of soil formation. The level of fertility of such soil is not high, since the environment is oxidized. Sod-podzolic soil contains 3 to 7% humus. It is also enriched in silica, and poor in phosphorus and nitrogen. This type of soil has a high water capacity.

Soils of mixed forests zones, posdolous soils and relief features

Gray soils and burozems

Brown and gray soils are formed in forests where coniferous and broad-leaved trees grow simultaneously. The gray type is transitional between podzolic soils and chernozems. Gray soils are formed in a warm climate and plant diversity. This contributes to the fact that plant particles, excrement of animals due to the activity of microorganisms are mixed, and the humus layer is large and enriched with various elements. It lies deeper and has a dark color. However, the soil every spring, when the snow melts, experiences significant moisture and leaching.

Soils of mixed forests zones, posdolous soils and relief features

Interesting

Forest brown soils are formed even in a warmer climate than forest soils. For their formation, summer should be moderately hot, and in winter there should not be a permanent snow layer. Throughout the year, the soil is moistened evenly. Under such conditions, the humus becomes brown brown.

In mixed forests, you can find various types of soils: burozems, gray forest and sod-podzolic soils. The conditions for their formation are approximately the same. The presence of thick grass and forest litter contributes to the fact that the soil is enriched with humus, but increased humidity promotes leaching of various elements, which slightly reduces soil fertility.

Soils of mixed forests zones, posdolous soils and relief features
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