Soldatik beetle (lat. Pyrrhocoris Apterus) is a very common representative of the detachment semifaster, belongs to the Krasnoklop family. The people are known under the names of the goat, the red bug and the like, since, depending on the region, the soldier can be called differently. The name from Latin is translated by “wingless bug”, but the bright color of the body, more reminiscent of soldier’s uniforms, turned the winged bug into a soldier’s bug in a Russian translation.
In its appearance, this beetle is very memorable and everyone saw it, most likely, if at least once went outside in the spring or summer. His body has an oval shape up to twelve millimeters long, which puts on the dimensions of this bug to the level with ants. There is a bulge that resembles a below below, and the body is flattened on top. Representatives have no sexual dimorphism, so it is difficult to determine the floor, despite many myths that the dreamers launched. The head has a triangular shape and black, the eyes are red, faceted, and ordinary ones are absent. The antennae have five segments in their structure, one of which is barely noticeable, and the rest are thickened in one way or another and increase to the top. The oral apparatus combines two functions and is considered to be a pricing-loving one, and it is expressed in the form of a hollow tube, which is both the upper and lower lip, forming a kind of trunk with jaw bristles inside.
The body of the bug of the soldier looks very interesting: it has a bright black and red color, which warns potential predators about the inedibility of the bug. A front of the trapezoid, a little narrowing to the head. The edges of the frontline are red, in the center there is a large black spot. This spot can be divided into two, three or four independent spots. Its edges may be uneven. Triangular shield, black color. Insect has six black legs. Black below below. The front wings of the red bug-soldier are turned into half-winging. Unlike the overlaps, the front of halfwinged overlays thickens, like beetles, and the tip of the overlap remains transparent, like twowinged or membranes. The halfworships depart from the middle part of the chest and are divided by grooves into 4 parts, painted black. There are two main forms of bugs-soldiers, characterized by only some nuances in the structure: winged and wingless. The wingedshaped hind wings are significantly shortened, when compared with the front. Only five percent of all individuals have a good development of the rear wings, and in the rest they are developed as mediocre. In addition, individuals with developed wings, ability to fly still.
Single beetles do not have any subspecies of forms, since they themselves are only representatives of the family, but they have several rather similar species: they have several rather similar species:
Bulannik BELEN. This insect is often called a bleached beetle or clop. It is quite like a soldier, but has more developed wings, less smooth and even colors, a red spot in the center and a rectangular antennae, which can not be said about red bugs.
Egyptian redknit. The only visible difference is a more slender shape of the body, a small spot and the absence of wingless individuals. You can only meet them in the southern part of Eurasia, so you should not be afraid that you can confuse one view with another.
Lifestyle and behavior
Many experiments in laboratory conditions showed that the difference between longwinged and shortwinged bugs is great, especially in daily activity. Long winged activity falls on the time period from noon to 20 o’clock in the evening, and the rest of the time they practically do not move, but do not sleep either. But shortwinged ones, in turn, have completely different results: their peak activity, twice a day at seven in the evening and at noon. The rest of the time, their activity is almost completely frozen, while they do not fall into a dream, being on the watchman.
Communication of bugs among themselves occurs with the help of smells and sounds. Odorous glands that emit an unpleasant odor, are located on the side of the chest. Smells are captured by the nerve endings, which are at the tips of the antennae, as well as along their entire length. Breeding with all their body, beetles make a sound that attract attention to themselves and communicate with relatives. The duration of such vibrations does not last long and amounts to about one and a half seconds. Actions to call vibrations occur only singlely, since this is often enough to transmit all the necessary information. The maximum intervals between the messages can be 30-60 minutes or more, and the minimum is about 5-15 minutes. Sounds are captured by trichobotria thin hairs located on abdominal segments. The length of these hairs can be completely different, and their sensitivity allows you to capture signals with a frequency of 80 to 160 hertz, which for the ear of most animals, a person, including too low, which our hearing can never be determined, no matter how many devices are used for this.
Representatives of this family prefer to carry out wintering under thick layers of fallen leaves, because there they will not get moisture and they will be able to transfer the cold from a warmer temperature. Larvae, by the way, do not go to wintering this is characteristic only.
Where it lives
As mentioned above, soldiers are found around the world, except for taiga regions, because there is too heavy climate for them, as well as many predators who will not allow such a little insect to live in tranquility. Although they are called soldiers, special combat skills or superhungry, like ants, for example, they do not have, and therefore protect themselves in which case for them becomes an almost impossible task for them. On the territory of Eurasia, they are found in most regions, except for the Republic of Komi, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Arkhangelsk, because there are too strong temperature changes and a changeable climate that does not allow the beetles to fully develop.
Most scientists converge with the opinion that the main food of the soldiers-soldiers is linden seeds, but many do not agree with them, because it is lime that you can not always find, therefore, other parts of plants have to be used as a diet: birch leaves, asparagus seeds, sunflower. , beans, cypresses and many others. The food occurs as follows: the bug pushes its proboscis forward and backward until it destroys the structure of the plant, after which it begins to splash its saliva and suck the resulting slurry. In addition, many individuals were seen in eating eggs of other insects, even their own counterparts, if there are no female guarding nearby. It is noteworthy that can be called the fact that with growing cannibalism it manifests itself precisely in the wingless larvae.
The marriage activity of the Knights of the wingless is read in March and increases sharply until the beginning of April, and then very slowly decreases by the end of June. Before mating, no courtship is observed. Females of the sulfate bug are ready to mate on 4 days of life, which sounds wild for humans, but in animals and insect world is the norm. Although most bugs are trying not to lay mature eggs in the same year when they become adults, and wait for another, accumulating nutrients inside and preparing for the production of offspring.
The coloring of these bugs drives away most illwishers, but they have many natural enemies. Basically, they are various birds, anthogettes who hunt at night when soldiers are sleeping, as well as bugs-hunters who choose any creature less in size as prey. In addition, soldiers are deprived of parasites, which on one individual can be detected up to fifty.