Solid household waste classes, accumulation standards and methods of disposal

Solid household waste (solid waste) are food remnants and objects that can no longer be used in household life. The composition contains both biological scum and household garbage. Every year the number of solid waste increases, because in the world there is a global problem of waste disposal.

MSW materials

Solid waste is characterized by a variety of composition and heterogeneity. Sources producing garbage are residential, industrial, economic and commercial facilities. The TBO group is formed by the following materials:

  • paper and cardboard products;
  • metals;
  • plastic;
  • food waste;
  • wood products;
  • fabrics;
  • glass fragments;
  • rubber and other elements.
  • In addition, there are a number of substances dangerous to the health that cause the greatest harm to the environment. These are batteries, cosmetics, electrical appliances and household appliances, dyes, medical waste, pesticides, paintwork, fertilizers, chemicals, mercurycontaining objects. They provide pollution of water, soil and air, and also harm the health of living creatures.

    The use of solid waste is secondary

    To reduce the negative impact of solid waste on the ecology, some waste is recommended to be used secondly. The first step towards this is the separation of waste on the materials. Of the total amount of garbage, only 15% are unsuitable for further use. So, biodegradable residues can be collected and processed to obtain energy resources, for example, biogas. This will reduce the amount of waste, as they will be used as raw materials for power plants operating on organic materials, which will allow you to use environmentally friendly fuel.
    In special factories, waste processing is carried out.

    You can use cardboard and paper a second time, for which people collect and hand over waste paper. Having processed it, the life of the trees is preserved. So, 1 million. tons of processing paper saves about 62 hectares of forest.

    In addition, you can process glass. It is cheaper to process the already used glass bottle for financial expenses than to produce a new. For example, 24% of energy resources are saved if you process a bottle of 0.33 liters. Broken glass is also used in industry. New products are obtained from it, and it is also added to some building materials.

    The used plastic is melted, after which new items are made from it. Often the material is used for the manufacture of railings and elements of fences. Tin banks go for processing. They get tin from them. For example, when 1 ton of tin is extracted from minerals, 400 tons of ore are required. If you extract the same amount of material from cans, then only 120 tons of tin products are needed.

    To make solid waste processing effective, garbage needs to be sorted. For this, there are containers in which there are separation for plastic, paper and other waste.

    Harm of ecology from solid waste

    Solid household waste clog the planet, and the increase in their number has a negative effect on the environment. First of all, the increase in the amount of garbage on Earth is harmful, and in the second glue, varnishes, paints, poisonous, chemical and other substances are harmful to the environment. They cannot be just thrown away, these elements need to be neutralized and placed in special burials.

    When batteries, cosmetics, electrical appliances and other dangerous waste accumulate on garbage training grounds, mercury, lead and toxic evaporation that falls into the air is released from them, pollute the soil, and with the help of ground and rainwater they are washed off in water bodies. Those places where the landfills are located will be unsuitable for life. They also pollute the environment, which causes various diseases of people who live nearby. The degree of influence distinguish waste from 1, 2 and 3 class of hazard.

    Solid household waste classes, accumulation standards and methods of disposal

    MSW processing

    In many countries of the world, household waste is processed. In Eurasia, this is approved by law and is aimed at saving resources. According to industry standards, it is allowed to use secondary raw materials. However, for this it is necessary to use special tools (certification, classification, passportation, licensing, etc.).

    In the production of recyclables is not a predominant material. The benefits of using processed waste are due to the following factors:

  • saving costs for primary raw materials;
  • the liberation of the places where the solid waste was previously stored;
  • Reducing the harmful effects of garbage on ecology.
  • In general, the problem of solid household waste has a global scale. The state of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere depends on its solution. Reducing of garbage also affects the state of human health, so this problem cannot be ignored.

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