Sumatran rhinos are the smallest compared to other types. They belong to nonparagraph mammals. There are two living subspecies: Western and Eastern. The northern subspecies died out in the last century.
The height of the animal can vary from 112 to 145 cm. The length of the body is on average 230-250 cm. The mass of the rhino can fluctuate from 800 kg to two tons. Animal hair cover consists of brown hairs. Most hair on the tail of the rhino. The skin of the Sumatran rhino no more than 16 mm. There are small folds on the neck and stomach. The length of the front horn of the animal usually does not exceed 25 cm. They are usually black. They also have a small rear horn of dark color.
Sexual dimorphism is expressed by body structure. So, the male is much larger than the female. In addition, females are not so long horns.
Genus of Sumatran rhinos (dicerorhinus)
Sumatran rhinos live for about 40 years, and usually their age does not exceed 45, but this applies to life in the wild. In captivity, they do not live up to 30 years old.
Where it lives
These animals live in Sumatra and on the territory of the Malay Peninsula. Some experts also note that Burma also has a small population. Sumatran rhinos can be found in the tropical forest, near the swamps. They live on the territory of mountain forests. In general, animals love wellwearing areas.
This type of rhino is used to a single lifestyle. Only during the period of reproduction and cultivation of the offspring of the female and males live together. Typically, every male owns a territory with an area of 50 km2, and the “house” of the female is 5 times less. Female individuals are almost always far from each other, but the males are different. Their territory is widened with excrement. Sometimes animals emit their scope of the soil. Sumatran rhinos are especially active in the evening. When the rainy season comes, they prefer to go high into the mountains, but with the onset of the cold, animals have to go down.
Rhinos are very fond of spending time, lying in the mud. When there is no suitable pit, they use horns to expand it. Such a pastime helps maintain thermal balance in the body, protects from insect bites. Usually they spend in mud 2 hours a day, but in captivity this time is reduced to 40-45 minutes. Sometimes rhinos can replace mud baths with bathing.
Individuals always create paths on the territory of their “home”. There are two types of paths: the main ones that play the role of certain bridges between important places, such as salt lines, and those that help easily reach the areas with the necessary food. These paths can be located on the territory of reservoirs whose depth can reach one and a half meters.
Sumatran rhinos prefer to graze in the evening, namely before it starts to get dark. Every day they need to eat about half a center of food. Salt is vital for these mammals, because they are frequent visitors to the solo. They eat leaves and fruits of trees representatives of the marinn and milk family, melastomic. There is a lot of fiber and protein in such food.
Rhinos are most loved by small seedlings. They fall on all weights on a shrub or tree and mercilessly eat leaves. Most of the species of plants that are needed by rhinos can be found in a small number in a particular area, and because of this, animals are forced to constantly change the diet and place of feeding.
In females, puberty occurs already at 6 years old, and in males only at 10. Pregnancy in the rhinos is long and lasts as much as 65 weeks. Having been born, the cubs weigh only 40-50 kg, the mother feeds them as much as he nurtures. The cubs live with the female before reaching two to three years. In the will of females, offspring is performed every 4-5 years.
Sumatran rhinos have quite atypical courtship. Males often beat females right in the face, make urination on them. Young individuals of the male sometimes kill females, but they can avoid death while in the wild. Despite such aggressive behavior, males take care of the female when he has estrus. This period lasts a day, but is repeated every 20-25 days.
Most often, predators attack young animals, and adults are afraid. Sumatran rhino can become a victim of a tiger or wild dog. Sometimes they are attacked by lions. In rare cases, rhinos kill each other.
Number and red book
Only 275 individuals are left in the world today. There are 6 populations of this mammal in the world, 4 of which are on Sumatra. That is why the Sumatran rhino is listed in the International Red Book. Back in 2011, the future of the population seemed vaguely, and now the view is almost on the verge of disappearance. This is because poachers kill rhinos every day and it is difficult to protect the population because of its absent-mindedness in the habitat. This is also due to hunting for the horns and bones of the animal. They are actively used by the population of Sumatra to treat diarrhea and even tuberculosis. As well as their horns are needed to create all kinds of elixirs that prolong life. The task is complicated by the fact that these animals are reluctant to multiply in captivity.
The protection of the Sumatran rhinos
All problems of rhinos are solved using the premises of rhinos in aviaries for breeding. At the moment, Sumatran rhinos are divorced and contained in the zoopinnati zoo. This institution is actively involved in the program aimed at preserving endangered species. There, relatively recently, Baby Andalas was born. Sumatran rhinos are also in the London Zoo, where animals are provided with all the necessary conditions.