Supplies belong to the family of the Boletaceae family. The main distinguishing feature of the body of the mushroom is small hard protrusions (scrapers), they give a rough texture to the legs. The genus of boletus is widespread, especially in the northern moderate regions, and it includes about 75 species.
Mushroom pickers love this mushroom for appearance, and not just for the opportunity to cook dishes. They value the density and fortress of the pulp, small exposure to worms.
- How to determine that the mushroom is a boot
- The color of the hat
- What types of boletus exist
- Red-brown (leccinum versipelle; yellow-brown) simulators
- Sosnaya boolets (Foxy Bolete)
- Red Sunsinces (Leccinum aurantiacum)
- Oak boards (Leccinum quercinum)
- Stained boletus (Harrya Chromapes)
- Are there any false simulators
- Where and in what season the boletus grow
- Culinary value of boletus
- The benefits and harms of handle for health
How to determine that the mushroom is a boot
The leg is stocky, the body of the mushroom is dense, the hat is red. The mushroom tastes pleasant, edible. All mushrooms at different stages of life do not radically change their appearance. But young and old copies of boletus are strikingly different. Young mushrooms have a hat that is “pushed” on a foot-footer leg. It is fully attached to the leg. In adult mushrooms, the hat and leg are similar in shape to the “fungi”, which are installed on playgrounds. The hat is wide, protects the leg from the rain and the sun.
The color of the hat
Avoid the old copies of boletus, in which the shade of the hat has completely changed. The texture of the surface at the hat varies from wet and viscous to oily or dry, from felt to a rather granular to the touch. The hat is brittle. The color changes, because mushrooms are living organisms and they do not always follow the encyclopedic rules! But in general, a specific type of boletus has a fairly consistent color scheme.
A hat in healthy mushrooms that are not exposed to parasites of orange-red, up to 20 cm across. The pulp is white, the damage places are first burgundy, then they purchase a grayish and purple-black color. The lower part of the hat has small whitish pores, which become bluish-brown during break.
Its height is 10-18 cm, thickness is 2-3 cm, after damage it acquires a greenish-blue tint. In healthy boletus, whitish legs with short rigid ledges, which, when aging, acquire brown color or blacken. Such a change in color should not be frightened, this is the norm for the boletus. Black does not contain synical acid or other poisons, safe for a person with proper harvesting and cooking.
The leg is buried deep into the ground, the main part is on the surface, but not all. Therefore, when collecting, the leg is cut as close to the ground as possible or the mushroom is twisted higher to lift it above the surface, trying not to damage the mycelium.
What types of boletus exist
The most interesting boletus:
Red-brown (leccinum versipelle; yellow-brown) simulators
This common mushroom with proper cooking is eaten. Usually collected in Finland and adjacent regions. It is found under the birch from July to November, after heat treatment it becomes black. This is the earliest type of mushrooms, the crop is harvested at the beginning of June.
The rough hat is widely convex, bright brown or red-brick, grows up to 20 cm across. The pulp at the ripe mushroom from white to pink, green when cutting, especially on the leg. Brown spores. The white solid leg of the mushroom is long and straight, covered with small black scales.
The yellow-brown boiler is moderately toxic (causes nausea and vomiting), if it is not properly treated thermally: frying or boiling for 15–20 minutes is necessary. As already mentioned, the mushroom becomes black when heated.
Sosnaya boolets (Foxy Bolete)
These mushrooms rarely come across not very experienced mushroom pickers. Experienced mushroom hunters find on characteristic features and do not confuse with other types of mushrooms.
The hat at the top is brick or chestnut with a shade of red, up to 10 cm across. Gills and pores are whitish, after damage they become gray. White scales covered with a leg up to 4 cm in diameter. When exposed, it becomes dark red or brown.
The pulp is white. On a hat, when pressed, the damaged place slowly blushes, at the base acquires a greenish tint, at the center of the legs of the winered.
Sosnovy booty is found under pine trees in coniferous and mixed forests. Under the aspen, this boot does not grow. The mycelium is more prolific in the presence of areas covered with moss.
Sosnovy Sosnovik is collected from July until the end of October. End of September, early October the most productive time.
There are no dangerous, false, poisonous pine bonies. People fried and cook these mushrooms, young boletus pickle.
Red Sunsinces (Leccinum aurantiacum)
Are found in the forests of Europe, North America and Asia and have a large body characteristic of boletus.
The hat is orange-red, up to 20 cm across. White pulp, in places of damage burgundy, then grayish, purple-black. The lower part of the hat has small whitish pores, which become bluish-brown during the section. The leg is whitish, in a height of 10-18 cm, in thickness 2-3 cm, when exposed, it acquires a bluish tint. Short hard ledges on the leg with age become brown or black.
Leccinum aurantiacum fruit in the summer and autumn in forests in Europe and North America. The connection between the mushroom and the host wood is mycorrhic. Traditionally, the mushroom is associated with poplars, but these boletus are also found among oaks and other deciduous trees, including beech, birch, chestnut, willow.
This mushroom is prepared, like other edible boletus. The pulp of the red boot darkens when preparing. Like most other types of Boletaceae, overripe mushrooms love insects, lay down the larvae in them. If you do not prepare in compliance with the technology, after eating a red boot, vomiting occurs, digestive problems.
Oak boards (Leccinum quercinum)
This mushroom fruit next to the oaks from June to early October small families.
Young specimens have characteristic in the form of a ball, “stretched” on the leg with a brick-red or brown hat 5-15 cm across. With age, the Leccinum Quercinum hat takes the type of pillow, with aging flattenes. Pour old mushrooms with a flat hat. A person does not digest a protein that forms in the body of overripe oak bors.
The surface of the hat is rough in wet conditions, in hot days cracks. The white and gray fruit body is dense, dark gray spots appear during breakage. Soon, the place of damage becomes blue-purple, as a result, blue-black.
Fluffy brown scales cover the surface of the legs. Her shape is solid. The leg grows to 15 cm, the diameter is up to 5 cm, germinates deeply into the ground, thickens below.
Stained boletus (Harrya Chromapes)
Are found in forests, where they form mycorrhic communication with deciduous and coniferous trees.
Fruits have smooth pink hats in youth, acquire a brown or pinkish tint with age. At first, the hats are convex, and then flatten, reach from 3 to 15 cm in diameter. The surface is dry or slightly sticky. In maturity, the field of the hat is twisted upward. The pulp is white and does not stain in blue when damaged. Colorful boletus does not have a distinct smell or taste.
The pores on the lower surface of the hat are white, become pale pink as the dispute ripens. Separate pores have a round or angular shape, their number is two or three per millimeter.
The thick leg has small pink or reddish dots, from white to pinkish color, the bottom is bright yellow. Leg length 4-14 cm, thickness 1–2.5 cm. It has the same width along the entire length or slightly narrows at the hat or at the ground. The surface of the legs has a rough texture.
Mushrooms are edible, but insects often infect them with larvae.
Are there any false simulators
In the nature of false boletus is not found. Sometimes conventional bribeons or mushroom pots (gall mushroom) confuse with these mushrooms . The differences between the species are that the chice are not darkened in the place of damage. Also, the princes have red yellow or brown hats, and not red or brickcolored like boletus.
Where and in what season the boletus grow
They find mushrooms with fruiting in summer and autumn in forests throughout Europe and North America. The connection between the mushroom of the booty and mycorrhist. In Europe, this mushroom is traditionally associated with poplars. Sunsinces are also found among oaks and other deciduous trees, including beech, birch, chestnut, willow, aspen. Supplies do not grow under coniferous trees in Europe. In the cooler climate of Eurasia and North America, boys grow in coniferous and deciduous forests.
The name of the mushroom suggests that these mushrooms prefer to establish a mycorrhability with aspen. But it is not so. Yes, they are found more often under these trees, but a wide variety of types of boletus suggests that the species was adapted to other conditions of existence.
The yellow-brown booth is not adjacent to the aspen, prefers to settle next to birches. Redheaded boot grows both in an aspen grove and next to other trees breeds. The mushroom is not picky for the age of the forest. It grows in young groves and in old established forests. Often they find simulators among fern and rare spicy grass.
It was previously believed that the growth season of boletus falls for the summer-autumn. Climate changes have shifted growth schedule. Recently, mushrooms have been found in late May.
August is considered to be an ideal season for collecting subosivists in Eurasia. At this time, mushroom pickers collect the most common look redheaded boot. This mushroom opens the season of “hunting” for boletus. The third and last wave of the crop falls at the beginning of autumn. By the end of the season early November, it is already difficult to find young mushrooms, and old copies contain colonies of larvae and too hard for pickling and salting.
Culinary value of boletus
This is a favorite type of mushroom for cooking at home. Culinary culinary specialists at public catering points prepare simulators, like other edible mushrooms. For the human body in quality and nutritional value, this is the second mushrooms after white mushrooms. Sunseline flesh becomes dark when preparing.
Due to a number of poisoning and difficulties with identification of species, some types of boards in Europe are considered unsafe for use. In Eurasia, mushrooms do not cause any fears, they are fried, boiled, salt, dried for cooking in the winter period. Unprotected or undercuted specimens cause vomiting or other negative consequences for digestion. Supplies cause nausea when consumed in raw.
Young boletus are prepared in a variety of, the old specimens are dried, crushed and used as a seasoning if the crop turned out to be meager.
These mushrooms are not suitable for joint cooking with other types of mushrooms due to the density of the pulp. Supplies are not produced when other mushrooms are already completely ready for use.
The benefits and harms of handle for health
Supplining contains a large amount of protein and fiber, micro and macroelements, they are useful and quickly saturated. Unfortunately, animal protein is absorbed faster, but there are important amino acids in the boletus, and they get free, you just need to spend time in the fresh air to collect the crop, which is already useful for the body.
Vitamins A, E, C, PP, Group B are in biological accessible form in the mushroom to the mushroom. Salt, potassium, iron and manganese are necessary for all organs and systems of the human body.
If you collect mushrooms away from industrial structures, then these mushrooms do not carry out any harm to a healthy person. With caution, people with kidney problems, digestive system and liver, like any other highandwhite food products.
If there are health problems, then not the mushroom itself consumes, but the broth from the boletus. Outwardly, it looks like a witch’s potion, dark and cloudy, but at the same time favorably affects the digestive tract, does not irritate the stomach and intestines.