Taiga natural zone, description, climate, features and characteristics | The Taiga Zone Eurasia

Taiga and taiga forests are located on the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In their territories, such climatic features as a very long cold winter and a small amount of precipitation prevail. Taiga forests of the north border the foresttundra, and the southern ones with broadleaved and coniferous forests. It is noteworthy that the taiga exceeds several times the area of ​​the Amazon forests. As a result, taiga forests are rightfully “light” of the entire planet.

Geography of the forests of the taiga

Taiga forests spread on the territory of the European and Asian region of Eurasia, as well as in Scandinavia and America. They can occur both on the plains and in mountainous conditions. The largest percentage of taiga forests falls to the west of Siberia and the European zone of Eurasia. On the territory of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, taiga forests are located in plain areas. In general, almost 90% of Eurasia forests are occupied by taiga forests.

Taiga natural zone on the map of Eurasia

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Taiga natural zone on the map of North America

Taiga vegetation

The most common breed of taiga forests is coniferous trees. For this reason, the taiga zone is often called the coniferous zone. Fires and concentrated cutting led to the fact that smallleaved forests appeared on the large area of ​​the taiga zone, which are represented by birches and aspen.

Taiga forests have a different structure and performance because of which they are divided into several subzones. Consider each of them in more detail:

  1. Subzone of a rareresistant taiga. It is located on the northern part. On its territory, conifers of lowlevel tree stands grow. Vegetation is tundra. The north of this subzone passes into a foresttundra.
  2. Northern taiga. This territory is characterized by closed coniferous forests of the 4th and 5th grade bonets, which grow on delayed submes.
  3. Average secret. It has a closed tree of grade 3 of the bonet. Soils in this part of typical podzols.
  4. South taiga. Here are the stands of the 2nd and 3rd classes of bonet with the participation of smallleaved rocks and their indigenous plantations. The soil is podzolic and sod-podzolic.

There are no clear boundaries between these zones. Approximately, we can attribute a rare tiega to the European part of Eurasia, and the northeast lasa-to the regions of the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions of Karelia and Komi. Also in the southern territories of the Republics of Karelia and Komi there are mediumsized forests.

Examples of taiga plants

Black spruce


Red cedar

Cedar stelic

The poplar is white


The climate of taiga forests may vary greatly depending on the location. The taiga, which is located in Asia, is characterized by high temperature fluctuations and a very large number of precipitation. European taiga has a milder climate. In some places, a certain climate may be created, which is due to the reliefs.

The duration of winter in taiga forests can reach 8 months. As a rule, winters are very cold. The lowest temperatures are fixed just in the taiga, in particular, on the territory of Yakutia. Spring comes quite late and is characterized by slightly higher temperatures, but with frequent cooling and frosts. The snow cover begins to go only to May, and in colder places by June. Summer is quite wet and warm with a characteristic predominance of cloudy weather. The average air temperature in the summer season varies from 12 to 15 degrees Celsius. In the fall, a large number of precipitation falls out that go into snowfalls.

It is believed that the climate of the taiga is the most healthy on almost the entire planet. In the summer season, the air of these forests is saturated with phytoncides that prevent the spread of infection. Thanks to slight humidity, winter frosts are felt much easier than in the Arctic.

The climate of the taiga zones of Eurasia is a table

Animals of taiga forests

A huge number of different animals can be found on the territory of taiga forests. These forests led to all the possibilities for the wide distribution of various representatives of the fauna.

Eastern Siberia is represented by a large number of animals such as: wolverine, brown bears, foxes, northern deer, wild boars, hares, chipmunks and wolves. The rivers of this part are filled with a wide variety of fish. The common birds characteristic of Eastern Siberia are cedar, hazel grouse, grouse and capercaillie. However, a very large number of migratory birds on the territory. Many animals of this area are listed in the Red Book.

Brown bear






Taiga animals adapted to the difficult conditions of the Northern Taiga. On the territory of the Primorsky Territory of Eurasia lives the Ussuri tiger, which is the pride of these forests. The number of these animals barely has 500 individuals (for 2019).

Ussurian tiger

Taiga natural resources

The wealth of the taiga has been studied quite incompletely. This is due to the length and harsh conditions in which it is quite difficult to organize research centers. In Eurasia, the taiga is widely used in industry, and also produced natural resources such as coal, gas, oil.

Taiga forests located in Canada are distinguished by a wide variety of the following resources: copper, zinc, uranium and silver. Many gold miners went on traveling along the Taiga of North America in order to get rich, having mined a large amount of gold.

At the moment, the taiga remains practically not touched, since a person has been mastered quite weakly. Reserves and security territories are widespread on the territory of taiga forests.

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