The Arctic climate of Eurasia and the world precipitation, characteristics, natural zones

The Arctic type of climate is characteristic of the territory of the Arctic and subarctic belt. There is such a phenomenon as a polar night when the sun does not appear above the horizon for a long time. During this period, an insufficient amount of heat and light.

climate of Eurasia

Features of the Arctic climate

The peculiarity of the Arctic climate is in very harsh conditions. Here, only at a certain time of the year, the temperature rises above zero, and the rest of the year frosts. Because of this, glaciers are formed here, and part of the mainland has a thick snow cover. That is why a special world of flora and fauna has formed here.


The main characteristics of the Arctic climate:

  • very cold winter;
  • short and cool summer;
  • strong wind;
  • The precipitation falls a little.


The zone of the Arctic climate is conditionally divided into two types. About 100 millimeters of precipitation per year fall in the continental type, in some places 200 mm. In the area of ​​the ocean climate, precipitation falls even less. The snow falls mainly, and only in the summer, when the temperature barely rises to 0 degrees Celsius, are rains coming.

The territory of the Arctic climate

The Arctic climate is characteristic of polar areas. In the Southern Hemisphere, this type of climate is common in the Antarctic continent. As for the North, it covers the zone of the Arctic Ocean, the outskirts of North America, and Eurasia. Here is the natural belt of the Arctic deserts.


The animal world in the Arctic climatic zone is relatively poor since living beings have to adapt to difficult conditions. The northern wolves and lemmings, NovoEarth deer, and foxes live on the territory of continents and islands. In Greenland live populations of musky bulls. One of the traditional residents of the Arctic climate is a white bear. He lives both on land and swims in the waters.

The bird’s world is represented by polar owls, Kaira, gaga, and pink seagulls. On the coast, there are flocks of seals and walruses. Pollution of the atmosphere, the oceans, melting of glaciers, and global warming contribute to the reduction of the number of populations of animals and birds. Some species are under the protection of various states. For this, national reserves are also created.


The plant world of the tundra and deserts in the Arctic climate is poor. There are no trees, only shrubs, herbs, mosses, and lichens are not found here. In some territories summer, polar poppies, rebellion, alpine foxes, sedges, and cereal plants germinate in the summer. Most of the vegetation is under the eternal permafrost, so it is difficult for animals to get food for themselves.


The amplitude of the Arctic climate is one of the main indicators. In general, the temperature ranges from +5- +10 to –40 degrees Celsius during the year. Sometimes in some areas, there is a decrease to –50 degrees. Such conditions are difficult for people’s lives, therefore, scientific research and production of raw materials are mainly conducted here.


For the most part in the Arctic climate zone, winter lasts. Air temperature on average is –30 degrees Celsius. The summer is short, it lasts several days in July, and the air temperature reaches 0 degrees, and can reach +5 degrees, but frosts come very soon again. As a result, the air does not have time to warm up in the short period of summer, and the glaciers do not hide, especially since the earth does not receive heat. That is why the continental territory is covered with snow, and glaciers float in the water area.

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