Arctic tundra – This is a special type of ecosystem, which is characterized by severe frosts and a very harsh climate. But, as in other regions, different representatives of the animal and plant world live there, adapted to adverse living conditions.
Arctic tundra is extremely poor in plant zones. Severe frosts, eternal permafrost, reaching 50-90 cm deep dominate here. Nevertheless, in such regions there are often dwarf shrubs, various types of moss, lichen and grass. Trees with sprawling roots in such conditions do not survive.
Climate of the Arctic tundra
Arctic tundra zone is located in the northern hemisphere. The main feature of the area is the snowiness of the earth. Polar nights in the tundra last several months. The harsh region is characterized by strong winds that can reach 100 km/h and the earth cracked from frost. The picture resembles a snow desert, a naked loam, strewn with a scattering of gravel. Sometimes small stripes of greens break through the snow, which is why the tundra is called spotted.
In winter, the air temperature in the Arctic tundra reaches50 degrees, the average indicators are28 degrees. All water in the district freezes and due to eternal permafrost, even in summer, the liquid cannot absorb into the ground. As a result, the soil acquires a marshy character, and lakes can form on its surface. In the summer, a significant amount of precipitation falls in the tundra, which can reach 25 cm.
Due to such adverse conditions, people do not show interest in the settlement in a given area. Only a native of the northern people will be able to cope with harsh climatic conditions.
Flora and fauna
The tundra zone has no forests. The region is dominated by a rarefied moss-lic «Diluted» swampy areas. This area has about 1680 species of plants, of which flowering are about 200-300, the rest – Mosses and lichens. The most common plants of the tundra are blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, princesses, late loydia, a frying lick, vaginal fluff and others.
The fluff is vaginal
One of the most famous shrubs of the Arctic tundra is Arctualpi. Closer to the south, dwarf birches, sedges and even dryads may meet.
The animal world of the tundra is not diverse. Only 49 varieties of organisms live here, among which different waterfowl and mammals. In this region, fishing and reindeer husbandry are developed. The most striking representatives of the animal world are ducks, gagars, geese, lemmings, partridges, larks, arctic foxes, a Belyak hare, ermine, affection, foxes, northern deer and wolves. It is impossible to find reptiles, since they do not live in such harsh conditions. Closer to the south there are frogs. Popular fish are salmon.
Ordinary arctic fox
Among the insects, the tundra secrete mosquitoes, bumblebees, butterflies and a footwear. Permanent permafrost does not contribute to the propagation of animals and the development of the variety of fauna. There are practically no wintering organisms and lands in the Arctic tundra.
The zone of the Arctic tundra is rich in important natural resources. Here you can find such minerals as oil and uranium, the remains of woolly mammoth, as well as iron and mineral resources.
To date, the question of global warming and the influence of the Arctic tundra on the environmental situation in the world is acute. As a result of warming, permafrost begins to thaw and carbon dioxide and methane enters the atmosphere. It is precisely the activity of a person who has not the latest influence on the rapid change in climate.