Indian Ocean is one of the most interesting water area on planet Earth. It is surrounded by continents from all sides, due to which cold and warm currents are circulated inside the peculiar “pool”, air flows from different continents are mixed. The climate in the Indian Ocean is significantly changing as it approaches Antarctica.
The water area is characterized by strong storms and cyclones due to mixing cold and warm air flows. The characteristics of the climate of the Indian Ocean must be discussed in more detail.
To describe weather conditions in the Indian Ocean, it is necessary to consider its individual parts. Its most of it is located in equatorial, subequatorial, tropical belts. Since the mountainous terrain prevails in Asia, this has a direct impact on the climate over the water area. The pressure rises above it (this phenomenon is called the Asian maximum). Due to the increase in pressure, the northeastern monsoon is formed, the direction of which is from the sushi, and the speed is approximately 4 m/s.
In the summer, the pressure decreases, the South Asian minimum appears, which originates in the Indus River basin. The direction of the wind is changed to the southwest, its speed reaches 9 m/s. In this case, the humidity level increases significantly. It is in the summer that cyclones that come from the north are formed over the Indian Ocean.
In the equatorial belt, water is calm, most often calm. North winds prevail in winter, in the summer southern. Tropical waters are characterized by southeastern passats, the average speed of which is 5 m/s.
The climate in the moderate area is set by the constant wind, which blows from the west, brings cyclones. In winter, the wind speed reaches 14 m/s, in the summer an average of 10 m/s.
Interesting fact! Compared to other oceans in the world, Indian ranks third in total water surface.
The average amount of precipitation over the predominant part of the Indian Ocean is 1000 mm per year. For an equatorial belt, this value increases to 4000 mm. Moreover, in this region, increased cloudiness prevails. The minimum amount of precipitation is characteristic of such territories as:
The tropical belt is characterized by medium cloudy (at 5 points). And the Arctic reaches this indicator 7 points.
Interesting fact! The only sea on the planet without shores Sargassovo is located in the Indian Ocean.
If we talk in general about the temperature, the southern part of the Indian Ocean is less warm than the northern. Closer to the equator, the temperature reaches 28 degrees Celsius. Near the coast of Asia, the air warms up to 24 degrees even in winter. In the southern throatical region, the average temperature in the winter is at a mark of 20 degrees.
The highest temperature in the summer is observed in the Persian Gulf and on the coasts of the Red Sea. It can reach 48 degrees Celsius. Significant temperature fluctuations are often observed in the temperate zone. The closer to Antarctica, the colder the air. The average temperature in winter in the moderate zone up to15 degrees. In the summer, it rarely rises above 15 degrees.
Near the Antarctic coast, the average temperature in the summer is 3 degrees. In winter, the temperature drops to20 and below.
Interesting fact! Huge mountain ranges are located at the bottom of the Indian Ocean. They were discovered at the beginning of the 21st century in the process of searching for a missing aircraft.
The physicochemical properties of the ocean water
The main characteristics of the ocean include several parameters:
Mostly Indian Ocean Blue. If we consider the coastal zone of Antarctica, the water becomes blue, has a greenish tint.
In most Indian Ocean zones, water warms up to 29 degrees. However, it quickly decreases when approaching Antarctica, reaches 1 degree.
The level of salinity of water directly depends on the fumes. For the Indian Ocean, they are in a negative mark1380 mm per year. There are two areas with a high salt content:
In the northeast of the Indian Ocean, salinity does not exceed 33%. Near Antarctica, the level of salinity of water is at a mark of 34%. Due to the melting of ice in the summer, salinity decreases.
Interesting fact! In the tropical climatic belt of the Indian Ocean, muddy. This is caused by a high content of cyanobacteria in water, plankton.
Ice formation in the Indian Ocean
In the zone of the Arctic and Subarctic, part of the Indian Ocean is covered with ice. The border for floating ice can be conditionally designated on remoteness 1600 km from Antarctica. The process of active melting of ice falls in November, December. However, the process is stretched until spring.
The Indian Ocean can impress its climatic features. They arise due to the difference in temperatures on land around the entire water area, the appearance of cold and warm air flows that come from the continents, the interaction of cold and warm currents, as well as large-scale monsoon circulation.