In the eukaryotes, two types of cells appeared during evolution: plant and animal. They are very similar to each other, but comparing them, we can come to the conclusion that there are much more differences. However, it is worth starting to consider these eukaryotic cells with their similarities with each other.
Similarities in cell structure
The plan of these types of cells speaks of the plan of their structure: both have cytoplasm, nucleus, lysosomes and ribosomes. It follows that they have an almost absolutely identical chemical composition.
It is also important that coding of hereditary information occurs with the participation of nucleic acids.
Differences in cell structure
These two types of cells differ primarily in the way of nutrition: the plant cell is autotroph, it itself synthesizes organic substances from inorganic and feeds on them, and the animal cell is heterotroph. It is not able to synthesize food on its own and uses exogenous substances. For this reason, the processes of catabolism prevail in the animal cell, when in plant anabolism.
The plant cell, unlike the animal, has a multilayer cell wall. It is needed to protect organoids and help maintain the shape of the cell.
All the components of this organoid, namely the plastic cyto-view, the supporting fibrlar structure made of cellulose (this is a polymer of glucose), distinguishes cytoplasm. With the help of plasma membrane and some membrane structures, these substances accumulate from the outside of the cell.
But some plants have substances that strengthen cell walls. So, in the wooden representatives of the flora, lignin is synthesized, the deposits of which create a powerful shell on the inside and lignify. Another strengthening substance is Suberin. It provides the impenetrability of the cell wall from water and gases.
These two types of cells have differences in appearance the animal cell has an oval shape, and the plant is more like a rectangle with rather clear angles. Also, animal cells have cilia.
The plant cell is also distinguished by the presence of plastic. They are protected by a double membrane. Among them there are chromoplasts, leukoplasts and chloroplasts. Chromoplasts can be detected in higher plants, they contain carotene. Leukoplasts are found in the cells of the lower plants, they stock up nutrients. The latter are the most common. They contain chlorophyll, which makes the plants green and allows for photosynthesis.
A plant cell under a microscope can be easily distinguished from the animal in the presence of a cellular center. The exception is only coatedseeded and gymnosperms. In the animal, such an organoid does not occur in such an organ.
A vegetable cell can be distinguished by the presence of vacuoles. These organoids are cavities in the cytoplasm, they are limited by the cell membrane tonoplast. There is cell juice inside them. Vacuols occupy most of the inner cavity of the cells, they are responsible for storing nutrients, for pH cells and processing toxic substances. Vacuols take on part of the functions of lysos. Small vacuoles are sometimes found in the animal cage, but they serve as a storage for water and waste.
These organoids begin to form at the first stages of cell development. They are formed from the bubbles that are separated from the Golgi apparatus. There are a lot of vacuoles in the “young” cage, they are dispersed by cytoplasm. But as the aging aged, these organoids merge together, forming the central vacuole. After the death of the cell, the contents of the vacuole spilled out and digest it. This is possible due to the fact that inside the organoid is a acidic or slightly acidic environment.
There are differences in the nucleus: in a plant cage it is located only on one side, when in the animal it is located right in the center of the “organism”.
Another difference between a plant cell and an animal is that the latter’s role is played by glycogen, stored in the cytoplasm or other inclusions, in plant starch starch. He is in vacuoles.
Table of comparison of differences and similarities
|Organides||Comparison of cells|
|Animal cell||Plant cell|
|Method of nutrition||
Heterotrophic (saprotrophic, parasitic) and largely determines the signs of animal cells, as well as a high level of metabolic activity
Autotrophic (phototrophic, chemotrophic), largely determines the main signs of plant cells
In chloroplasts, mitochondria
Pation of ATP
In all parts of the cell where energy costs are required
In chloroplasts and other parts of the cell where energy costs are needed
The absence of cellulose cell wall means that animals
|Pullulose cell wall provides mechanical support (the contents of the cell creates turgor pressure) and protection against possible damage during osmotic flow of water into the cell. The cell wall is permeable for water and dissolved substances.|
|The form||The shape is round (wrong)
The absence of a cell wall means that animal cells can change their shape
|Rectangular shape (fixed)
The presence of cellulose cell wall means that plant cells maintain constant shape
Are in all cells
Only in lower plants
|Vacuoli||One or more small vacuoles (less than in plant cells) and exist temporarily. They can participate in digestion (for example, in phagocytes) or in excretion (for example, contractile vacuoles remove excess water).||One large central vacuol, occupy 90% of the cell volume. Large constant vacuole is filled with water that provides turgor pressure; Various ions and molecules can be stock up here.|
|Centrioly||Present in all animal cells||Are present only in lower plants.|
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll pigment (absorbs
Cytoplasm in animal cells is usually denser it contains more organell and dissolved substances.
Consists of water and dissolved substances, such as amino acids and sugar. It supports various organelles (for example, mitochondria, ribosomes), existing vital metabolic reactions (for example, breathing).
|Endoplasmic network (smooth and rough)||There is||There is|
|Ribosomes||There is||There is|
|Mitochondria||There is||There is|
Chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leukoplasts
|Golgi apparatus||There is||There is|
|Plasma membrane||Only cell membranes||cell wall and cell membranes|
|Microtroughs / microfilaments||There is||There is|
|Flagella||can be found in some cells||can be found in some cells|
Lysosomes are found in the cytoplasm
Lysosomes are usually not visible.
The nucleus contains genetic material (DNA that forms chromosomes), which contains instructions that determine the characteristics and functions of the cell. Chromosomes can only be observed during cell division.
|Cilia||There is||Very rarely|
Spare nutrients in the form of grains and drops (proteins, fats, carbohydrate glycogen); final metabolic products, salts crystals; pigments
Spare nutrients in the form of starch grains, protein, drops of oil; vacuoles with cell juice; Salt crystals
Differences in cell division
Plant cells multiply with mitosis. So, in one cell a partition is formed, which divides it into two parts new cells.
Animal cells are divided by hacking, they do not have a spindle of division.
The stage of energy metabolism in both types of eukaryotic cells
In plant cells, the vicious stage of energy exchange takes place in the form of fermentation. So, 1 glucose molecule is converted into 2 ethyl alcohol molecules. During the process, the energy is released, which the cell stocks in the form of ATP. ATP synthesis can only occur in plastis, mitochondria.
Glycolysis occurs in the cell of animal. In this case, glucose breakdown occurs, since it is a rather energyintensive substance. During the process, all other chemical transformations are catalyzed with enzymes.