The family of nightshade plants signs, representatives and examples, structure, features, meaning

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Plants of the nightshade family belong to the class of dicotyledonous and the department of flowering. Also, this family has a separate order called the nightshadecolor, to which the Black Family belongs. At the moment, a family of nightshades has about 2300 species. They are noteworthy in that most plants bring fruits that are widely used by a person. These include such famous crops as eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, potatoes and many others. Among the species there are various herbs, shrubs and trees.

The bulk of the plants of the nightshade family is wildly. Most often, plants of this family grow in the territories of South and Central America in the form of herbs and shrubs, and the wood species of this family spread widely in the tropics. In Eurasia, you can meet black nightshazen, Belen and dope.

Types of nightshade plants

Aknistus

The most common perennial shrub of the nightshade family. It reaches a height of 4 meters, but it can look like a small tree. The leaves of this plant are simple and with a long in the range from 5 to 10 centimeters. Acnistus flowers have a tubular shape and can be either purple and white or blue color. Power this flower and various insects, in particular, bumblebees.

Belladonna

Handsome is a perennial plant, which is represented by a multiheaded rhizome with a large number of branching roots. The stems of this plant are quite thick and thick. They are able to reach a height of two meters. The leaves are painted in dark green and have a characteristic egg-shaped shape. The flowers are in the sinuses of leaves and have brown-violet color. The fruiting period lasts from June to August.

Brugmansia

Brugmansia has a similar look with a dope. However, they have a number of significant differences. In Brugmansia, the flowers are located down the funnel, while the dope they look up and sides. Brugmansia itself is a grassy lignify perennial with extraordinary large flowers that make a pleasant aroma.

Caliberchoa

Caliberchoa is a grassy halfbush, which is often used for decorative purposes. This plant has beautiful flowers with a diameter of not more than 3 centimeters. There are flowers of completely different colors and shades. In total, there are about 18 varieties of pink, lilac, purple, red, cherry, yellow, raspberry and orange coloring.

Capsicum

Capsicus is an amazing plant that has become indoor pepper. He was brought from tropical Mexico and Guatemala. Capsikus dwarfs are used for decorative purposes. Flowers and fruits appear on branched stems. As a rule, the flowers are located alone, but can form bundles or pairs. They are capable of selfpollination, so the fruits grow in indoor conditions.

Cestrum

Cestrum plant has about 200 different types of shrubs or small trees. Among them can be either deciduous or evergreen varieties. The leaves of a dark green cesture with a glossy surface. Tubular flowers look like rounded umbrellas. The flowers differ with a pleasant aroma that intensifies at night.

Durman

The dope has become a plant with a rather ambiguous reputation. It has large and beautiful tubular flowers, but the plant itself is poisonous. Since ancient times, it has been cultivated by shamans to communicate with spirits. Now this flower is used to decorate landscapes, however, subject to caution measures.

Other plants of the nightshade family

Duboisia

Henbane

Iochroma

Boxthorn

Mandrake

Nikandra

Tobacco

Petunia

Physalis

Bubble

Sarah

Shitizantus

Skopoli

Solandra

Streptosolla

Signs of plants of the family of nightshade

All plants of the nightshade family have a number of common features. These include:

  • The presence of a spineknit corolla, which is formed by fusing floral petals;
  • The presence of a poisonous substance called Solanin, which is localized in the vegetative organs of plants;
  • The same structure of flowers;
  • Fruit berry or box. An example of the berry can be tomato and black nightshade, and boxes are tobacco or petunia.
  • The type of fetus may depend on the type of plant. Almost all nightshafts have simple leaves and aromatic flowers in the form of an elongated corolla.

    The structure of the nightshade

    Plants of the nightshade family have lobed leaves, which can be an integral or dissected shape. As a rule, the leaves are covered with a small fluff. Plants have no straps of the family. The stem is straight and juicy. Has a brittle structure and is covered with slight villusiness. Error escape can form tubers. Inflorescences of plants of the nightshade family can be both complex and simple. Simple ones look like a single flower. Complex can be in the form of a panicle, brushes and gyrus. The flowers are bisexual, and the perianth is double. There are plants with fused flowers. There are 5 stamens near the pestle. The roots have a core structure, but plants with vegetative propagation are characterized by the oral root system.

    Rasneine flower

    Plants of the nightshade family can have both one or several flowers collected in small inflorescences. As a rule, the flowers are correct with doubleleafy perianth. The flower cup has the shape of 5 flexed cups. Anthers are quite large and can get closer to the center. After the flowering process is completed on plants, fruits begin to be tied, which can be berries or boxes. They contain small seeds with endosperm.

    Poisonous nightshade

    The poisonous substances of the plants of the nightshade are in the tops, and the fruits and root crops are absolutely harmless. For example, only a mature fruit is edible in tomatoes, and the tuber has a tuber.

    Wild representatives are much more dangerous for both animals and humans. If the berry of sweet and black nightshade enters the body, then it can cause extremely dangerous poisoning. Also, Belen Black, which contains strong poison in the leaves, is dangerous when taking oral. However, it is often used to prepare ointments in medicine.

    The main types of poisonous plants of the nightshade family

    Sweet-hot nightshade

    This plant is found on the territory of subtropical belts. It hides in the thickets of shrubs, and also grows on the coastal roads of rivers, swamps and lakes. There are sweet nights of 180 centimeters high. They are distinguished by long and winding stems and oblong-ovate leaves. The fruit has the form of a berry of 1 centimeter long. The use of this plant can cause a diuretic, diuretic, laxative and sedative effect. A decoction is made from it, which is used to combat caterpillars.

    Belladonna

    In another way, this plant is called ordinary beauty. It contains atropine that causes a state of strong excitement. In addition to atropine, it contains such dangerous substances as hyoscin, hyoscyamine and Belladonnin. They are able to cause severe poisoning. The plant itself has a branched root and a stem up to 90 centimeters high. Leaves can be ovoid and zoasted in shape. The flowers are painted in dirty purple or yellow color. The fetus has the appearance of a black berry that resembles a cherry.

    Blane is black

    This is a herbaceous biennial plant that has spread widely in Africa, Asia, the Caucasus and almost throughout Europe. All parts of this plant are dangerous and poisonous. Their composition contains strong alkaloids of scopolamin, atropine and hyoscyamine. They have a serious negative effect on the nervous system. Belen can reach a length of up to 115 centimeters and has a sharp unpleasant odor. The flowers are painted in a dirty yellow color with a purple whisk.

    The dope is ordinary

    The plant is distinguished by a powerful and branched root. The stem can reach a height up to 1.5 meters. This herbaceous oneyearold plant has toothed eggshaped leaves. The flowers are large, painted white. The fetus has the appearance of a box with two sashes, which are covered with spikes. Literally the entire plant is extremely poisonous. It contains alkaloids of Daturins, which have an atropinlike effect.

    Mandrake

    Like all of the above plants, Mandragora is pleased. Her root is remotely similar to the human figure. The leaves are quite large and whole. Can reach a diameter up to 2 meters. Purple or blue flowers endowed with bellshaped shape. The fruit has the appearance of the berry with the smell of an apple. In traditional medicine, this plant is not used, but it is still used in folk medicine.

    Tobacco

    This culture today has become widespread in many countries. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking, which, by definition, causes a number of diseases. The appearance of this plant is represented by a long root, which can reach 2 meters. The stem is branched, and the leaves are whole and pointed. Flowers can be red, pink and white. They are collected in a shieldshaped inflorescence. The direct fruit of tobacco is represented by a multiseeded box that cracks when the plant ripens.

    The nightshade family has a fairly large number of toxic plants, the use of which can cause severe poisoning, and in some cases lead to death.

    Cultural nightshade

    Halfly herbaceous plants grow most often in a moderate climatic zone and are represented by both annual and perennial varieties. This list includes vegetable crops, therapeutic herbs and indoor plants.

    The cultivation of vegetable plants of the nightshade family began in the 16th century in Europe. Particular importance is given to potatoes. Today this product has become one of the most common in human nutrition. It contains about 25 percent of starch, as well as complex carbohydrates, fiber and vitamin C.

    The second plant of the nightshade family is eggplant. They began to grow in India, and after which they spread to many European countries. This vegetable contains a large number of minerals, vitamins and pectin.

    Tomatoes began to be grown in greenhouse farms. This vegetable has become widely revered due to high nutritional value. Its composition contains useful substances that are used for anemia and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Many doctors recommend that you include in the diet of tomatoes raw to maintain health.

    Sweet and bitter pepper also belongs to the family of nights. These fruits are characterized by a fairly high percentage of vitamin C and a number of mineral compounds. It is recommended to use it to lower cholesterol and strengthen the walls of blood vessels.

    Physalis is widely cultivated in Mexico. In Eurasia, this plant did not receive proper demand. Mexicans appreciate it for a pleasant taste. Some varieties of physalis include strawberry view with the taste of the berry. Such plants are popular in South America.

    Mexican Physalis

    Melon pear. A rather unusual representative of the nightshade, who have just begun to appear in summer residents. The fruits of this plant have a pleasant sweet taste. It also contains a large number of vitamins, iron and keratin.

    Medicinal nightshade

    Poisonous plants are widely used in medicine, which were discussed above. Belladonna is in particular demand. The leaves of this plant are used in the form of tinctures or tablets. It has qualities that help fight diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as with bronchitis and heart disease. Belladonna is consumed to quickly get rid of toxins that are in the body when eating toxic mushrooms.

    The second popular in medicine plant of the nightshade family was Belen. It is widely used in folk recipes. Its main property is an analgesic effect. It is also used for lung diseases, neurosis and insomnia. Tinctures, ointments and various decoctions are prepared from it.

    Mandragora began to be widely used in antiquity. It was believed that the grass of this plant drives away many diseases. Its leaves were applied to wounds and used as a remedy for pain syndromes. Now it is used exclusively in folk medicine. Tinctures and extracts are made from it, which are used to eliminate skin pathologies and gastrointestinal diseases.

    Black nightshade began to be used to combat such ailments as fever, lichen, psoriasis. He also proved his effectiveness in the treatment of sore throat and the fight against wet coughing.

    In no case should you prescribe medications from the above plants yourself. First of all, you need to consult a doctor. It is important to remember that their improper use can lead to dangerous poisoning and even death.

    Spreading

    Almost all plants of the nightshade family from South and Central America. They adapted well to moderate, tropical and subtropical climate. In the CIS countries, the family is represented by herbaceous plants that are combined in order of 45 species. Many of them are quite important for humans, since they have food, medicinal and technical value.

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