The fly agaric is poisonous description and photo of the fungus, properties and signs

Amanita muscaria is a poisonous mushroom with a psychoactive effect. He belongs to the genus of Amanite or fly agaric. The name flyer is associated with the ancient way to use it as a means for scaring flies. Despite notorious fame, the Red Fleeter was widespread in folk medicine, cosmetology and economy.


The appearance of the red fly agaric is represented by a hat and a leg. The diameter of the hat is in the range from 8 to 20 centimeters. The shape of young mushrooms is mainly semicircular. With age, the hat becomes flat, and sometimes concave. A distinctive feature of red fly agaric is the color of the hat, which varies in various shades of red color. In young mushrooms, the color of the hat is most often bright red, in old ones-light orange. With age, the hat becomes dull and lighter. The surface of the hat is covered by characteristic white flakes. Old mushrooms may not have them, since they are easily washed off rain. The plates under the hat are located freely with the presence of intermediate plates. Their color is white, but they acquire a yellow or brown tint as the fungus grows.

The length of the mushroom leg can reach 30 centimeters with a diameter of 1 to 2.5 centimeters. Cylindrical form with a thickening in the form of a tuber at the base. The color of the legs is white, but it can become yellowish. Old mushrooms have a completely hollow. A captured ring with a brownish tint is located near the legs. However, in age mushrooms, the ring is quite difficult to distinguish, since it merges with the leg.

The sporebearing layer is represented by the tubular texture of white in young mushrooms, yellow in the old. White pulp. When in contact with air, a yellowish tint acquires. The taste is sweet, but the smell has practically no. Spore powder of white color, the spores of a pronounced ellipsoid.

Territory of growth

You can meet red fly agaric on the territory of deciduous and coniferous forests, as well as in meadows, fields and parks. He settled a very large range. Spread in all forests of Eurasia, with the exception of the southern regions with a dry climate. The fruiting period begins in June and ends in early November. Prefers to grow in acidic soils. Often found under forest trees and birches. Grows most often in groups, but can occur one by one.


The danger of red fly agaric is due to a high concentration in its composition of various poisons. When eating it, the parasympathetic nervous system seriously suffers. In the chemical composition of the red fly agaric there are poisons such as:

  • Muscarin;
  • choline;
  • Bufotenin and betaine (are responsible for the hallucinogenic effect);
  • Putresocine;
  • abundant acid (irritates mucous membranes).
  • A person is enough only 5 grams of red fly agaric in its pure form to get a fatal dose of a large number of toxic substances. In combination with alcohol, poisons act many times faster and affect the organs in a very short time.

    According to one of the theories, sore acid contained in the red fly agaric, kills various insects. However, using it in rooms with people and pets is extremely dangerous. During drying, the mushrooms release bufotenin and betan, which has a hallucinogenic effect. These substances can cause convulsive syndrome.

    Poisoning with red fly agaric

    Aboric acid penetrates the tissues of the brain, acting as a hallucinogen. Possessing extremely high neurotoxicity, sore acid leads to the death of brain neurons. Muscarin leads to a decrease in cardiac emissions and dilatation of blood vessels, as a result of which blood pressure drops strongly, vomiting and nausea appear, the production of saliva increases, bronchospasmes begin. Muscimol has a dissociative and sedative-hypnotic effect.

    Poisoning with red fly agaric occur quite rarely. Most often it is associated with the incorrect use of the fungus for medical purposes. The first symptoms appear a couple of hours after drinking red fly agaric. These include: weakness, vomiting, nausea, headache and dizziness, vision problems, increase in body temperature, hallucinations and bradycardia. Death from poisoning is quite rare, but the victim needs urgent medical care. Before the arrival of doctors, plentiful drinking is recommended. It is also worth trying to rinse the stomach with vomiting. To relieve symptoms, you can drink activated charcoal. Thus, it is possible to prevent toxins in the intestines. The doctor selects the desired dose of antidot anthropine for the treatment of poisoning.

    Selfmedication will not lead to good consequences, therefore, at the first signs of poisoning, it is urgent to use the help of professional doctors.

    Medical use

    The hat of the red fly agaric has a unique value. In these fungi, there are also a large amount of fiber and enzymes that allow you to effectively split fats and glycogen. Red fly agaric is actively used in the treatment of cancer, radiation ulcers and dermatitis. The pharmacology uses the active substances of the red fly agaric for the manufacture of drugs that effectively fight with angina pectoris, heart pain, increased heartbeat, arrhythmia and hernias.

    Traditional medicine actively uses various decoctions of this fungus to treat diseases in the spinal cord, with alcoholism, goiter and depression. To restore joints and treatment of radiculitis, tinctures of red fly agaric are used.

    In homeopathy, red fly agaric received separate recognition two centuries ago. At the heart of the Homeopathic drug Akaricus lies an extract from the composition of the red fly agaric. The drug was used to combat diseases such as parkinsonism, cramps, bladder paralysis and muscle spasm.

    Red fly agaric is actively used in cosmetology. Extracts without toxic substances are created from mushrooms. As a result, the extract contains a whole complex of enzymes and active antioxidants. It is used to increase elasticity and elasticity, leveling the surface of the skin, stimulating cell renewal.

    To combat insects, special compositions are created using a hat of red fly agaric. To do this, the hat is cut into small pieces, and then poured with water or milk. The resulting mixture is closed with blotting paper. It is important that the paper plays beyond the edges of the plates, so that insects can sit on it. The resulting tool has been used to combat insects since ancient times. However, as it turned out later, flies do not die from the use of fly agaric.

    It is important to consider that using drugs and tinctures based on red fly agaric can only be agreed with a doctor. Mushroom poisoning can seriously undermine health. You need to be extremely careful.

    Pregnant women and children cannot be consumed. You can not use red fly agaric ointment in open wounds. Individual intolerance to the use of this fungus may also occur, which is fraught with serious consequences.

    Psychotropic effect of red fly agaric

    The presence of psychoactive substances in the composition of the Red fly agaric led to its use in various religious ceremonies of the ancient peoples. Representatives of the north used red fly agaric as a hoppy remedy, since their effect on the nervous system is very similar to severe intoxication. As a result, visual and auditory hallucinations appear, attacks of anger and joy, color images. With an overdose, a person loses consciousness, and after awakening, nothing can remember.

    Animals use red fly agaric, but the effect on them is not studied. It is noteworthy that the northern deer are always in a hurry to enjoy these red mushrooms. Chukchi used dry fly ages. They also bitten the hat of a dry fly agaric, which was then slowly chewed and washed down with water. In Eurasia, red fly agaric was used as a drug 1000 years ago. Now fly agaric are actively used in the cooking of Japan and the prefecture of Nagano.

    It is noteworthy that prolonged boiling of red fly agaric contributes to the removal of psychoactive and toxic substances. However, poisoning will still be, but not as strong as when using raw mushrooms. Some of the sources claim that when brewing red fly agaric in two waters, they become completely clean and edible. There is no accurate confirmation of this.

    The ancient peoples used red fly agaric to communicate with spirits and comprehend the state of trance. They were also actively used by shamans in ritual rites.

    Chukchi described 3 stages of flying flying. At the first stage, light euphoria, excitement, improvement of physical condition and good mood occurs. The second one comes to replace this stage, when various hallucinations begin, objects change their original form and all reality seems illusory. The third stage is characterized by a complete loss of consciousness and a connection with the surrounding reality. A person communicates with spirits, after which he falls into a serious narcotic dream.

    Interesting Facts

    Red fly agaric is covered with a large number of different myths. However, not all of them are true. Interesting facts about red fly agaric:

    1. Most people are inclined to the fact that the poisons of red fly agaric are fatal. However, in fact, there are fewer toxins in these fungi than in pale bog.
    2. Many wild animals eat red fly agaric. It is believed that in this way they clean the intestines from parasites;
    3. In Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania, red fly agaric can be purchased right on the market;
    4. Scientists have refuted the insecticidal qualities of fly agaric. It turned out that flies do not die from the fruit body of the mushroom, but due to the fact that they are drowning in the liquid accumulated in the hat;
    5. Mycologist Mikhail Vishnevsky proved that the poisonousness of fly agaric is relative after several jams;
    6. Residents of the Altai region proposed to include red flyman in the list of rare mushrooms of the Red Book.
    7. Red fly agaric has no similar doubles. They are easily identified even by a novice mushroom pic.

    Despite the mystery and unique properties of red fly agaric, experts do not recommend setting up experiments and eating these mushrooms.

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