The granulometric composition of the soil is the method of determination, classification, influence and meaning and meaning

There are many types of soils and each of them has striking differences from other varieties. The soil consists of a variety of particles of any values ​​that have the name “mechanical elements”. The content of these components allows you to determine the granulometric composition of the soil, which is expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry land. Mechanical elements, in turn, are grouped in size and form fractions.

Common fractions of soil components

Several groups of mechanical composition are distinguished, but the most common classification is considered as follows:

  • stones;
  • gravel;
  • Sand divided into large, medium and small;
  • Il is divided into rough, thin and colloids;
  • Dust large, medium and small.
  • Another separation of the granulometric composition of the Earth is as follows: the sand is loose, the sand is connected, the loam is light, medium and heavy, the sand, the clay is light, medium and heavy. Each group contains a certain percentage of physical.clay.

    The soil is constantly changing, as a result of this process, the granulometric composition of the soils also does not remain the same (for example, due to podzol formation, the silt is transferred from the upper horizons to the lower). The structure and porosity of the earth, its heat capacity and connectivity, permeability of the air and moisture content depends on the components of the soil.

    Classification of soils by skeletal (by n.BUT. Kachinsky)

    Boundary values, mm
    The name of the fraction
    0,0001-0,0005 Thin silt
    0,0005-0.001 Rough silt
    0.001-0.005 Small dust
    0.005-0.01 Average dust
    0.01-0.05 Large dust
    0.05-0.25 Subtle sand
    0.25-0.5 Medium sand
    0.5-1 Coarse sand
    1-3 Gravel
    More than 3 The rocky part of the soil

    Features of fractions of mechanical elements

    One of the main groups forming the granulometric composition of the Earth is the “stones”. It is a wreckage of primary minerals, has poor permeability of water and a rather minimal moisture content. Plants growing in this earth do not receive sufficient elements for nutrition.

    The second most important of the component is the sand these are the fragments of minerals, in which most of the quartz and field sparks occupy most. This type of fractions can be described as well waterproof with low waterlifting ability; moisture content is no more than 3-10%.

    The silt faction contains a small amount of minerals that make up the solid phase of soils and is mainly formed from humus substances and secondary elements. It can coagulate, is a source of plants in plants and is rich in aluminum and iron oxides. The mechanical composition is moistureresistant, the permeability of the water is minimal.

    Large dust belongs to the sand fraction, but is distinguished by good water properties and does not take part in the formation of the soil. Moreover, after rains, as a result of drying, a crust appears on the surface of the earth, which negatively affects the water-air properties of layers. Due to this feature, some plants may die. Average and fine dust have low fluid permeability and high moisture content; She does not participate in the formation of soil.

    In the granulometric composition of the soils there are large particles (more than 1 mm) these are stones and gravel, which form the skeletal part and small (less than 1 mm) fineground. Each fraction has unique properties and features. Fertility of the soil depends on the balanced number of elements of the composition.

    An important role of the mechanical composition of the Earth

    The mechanical composition of the soil is one of the most important indicators on which agronomists should be focused on. It is he who determines the fertility of the soil. The more mechanical fractions in the granular composition of the soil, the better, richer and in huge quantities contains a variety of mineral elements necessary for the full development of plants and their nutrition. This feature affects the processes of structural formation.

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