The world ocean is a special ecosystem that develops according to its own laws. Particular attention should be paid to the world of flora and fauna oceans. The area of the oceans occupies 71% of the surface of our planet. The entire territory is divided into special natural zones, where its type of climate, plant and animal world have formed. Each of the four oceans of the planet has its own characteristics.
The main part of the plant world of the Pacific Ocean is phytoplankton. It consists mainly of unicellular algae, which is more than 1.3 thousand species (peridinea, diatome). In this water area there are about 400 types of algae, while only 29 sea grasses and flowers. In the zone of tropics and subtropics, you can find coral reefs and mangroves, as well as red and green algae. Where the climate is colder, in a moderate climatic zone, laminaric brown algae grow. Sometimes at considerable depths there are giant algae about two hundred meters long. A significant part of the plants is located in the shallow zone of the ocean.
Such plants live in the Pacific Ocean:
Unicellular algae are the simplest plants, live in the salty waters of the ocean in darkened places. Due to the presence of chlorophyll, they acquire a green hue.
Diathomic algae, which have a siliconsilicon dyoxide shell. They are part of phytoplankton.
Laminarias grow in places of constant currents, form a “laminarium belt”. Usually they are found at a depth of 4-10 meters, but sometimes there are 35 meters at the bottom. The most common green and brown kelp.
Coadophore of Steampson. Wooden, thick plants are formed by bushes, the length of the beams and branches reaches 25 cm. Grows on a hut and a sandy-filled day at a depth of 3-6 meters.
Ulva is perforated. Twolayer plants, the length of which varies from a few centimeters to one meter. They live at a depth of 2.5-10 meters.
Zoster Sea. This is sea grass that occurs in shallow water up to 4 meters.
Northern Arctic Ocean Plants
The Arctic Ocean lies in the polar belt, and a harsh climate reigns here. This was reflected in the formation of the Flora world, which is distinguished by poverty and a slight variety. The basis of the plant world of this ocean is algae. Researchers counted about 200 types of phytoplankton. These are mainly unicellular algae. They are the basis of the food chain of this water area. However, here herbal grounds are actively developing. Cold water contributes to this, creating optimal conditions for their growth.
The main plants of the ocean:
Fukus. These algae grow in bushes, reach sizes from 10 cm to 2 m.
ANFELSIA. This type of dark red algae has a filamentary body, 20 cm growing.
Bulk. This is a flowering plant that has a length of up to 4 meters, common in shallow water.
Atlantic ocean plants
The plant world of the Atlantic Ocean is various types of algae and flowering plants. The most common flowering species is oceanic sidonia and zoster. These plants are found at the bottom of the seas of the ocean basins. As for Potionia, this is a very ancient type of flora, and scientists have established its age 100,000 years.
As in other oceans, algae occupies a dominant place in the plant world. Their variety and quantity depends on the temperature of the water and depth. So in cold waters are the most encountered kelp. Fax and red types of algae grow in a temperate climate. The warm tropical zones are very warm, and this environment is not at all suitable for algae growth.
In warm waters the best conditions for phytoplankton. It lives an average of a hundred meters and has a complex composition. Plants change in phytoplankton depending on latitude and on the time of year. The largest plants in the Atlantic Ocean grow at the bottom. So the Sargass Sea is distinguished, in which there is a high density of algae. Among the most common species, such plants should be called:
Fillospadix. This is sea flax, grass, reach a length of 2-3 meters, have a bright green color.
Rodinks. Found by bushes with flat leaves, in them there is a pigment of ficoeritrin.
Brown algae. In the ocean there are various species, but they are united by the presence of a fucoxantin pigment. They grow at different levels: 6-15 m and 40-100 m.
Plants of the Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is rich in red and brown algae. These are kelp, macrocystis and fukus. A lot is growing in the water area of green algae. There are also lime types of algae. A lot in the waters there are sea grass Poseidonia.
Macrocistis. Brown perennial algae, the length of which reaches 45 m in waters at a depth of 20-30 m.
Fukus. Live at the bottom of the ocean.
Blue-green algae. They grow to the depths of bushes of various densities.
Sea Grass of Posidonia. Distributed at a depth of 30-50 m, the length of the leaves up to 50 cm.
Thus, the vegetation of the oceans is not as diverse as on land. However, the basis is phytoplankton and algae. Some species are found in all oceans, and some only in certain latitudes, which depends on solar radiation and water temperature.
In general, the underwater world of the World Ocean has little studied, therefore, scientists annually open new types of flora that need to be studied.