The problem of climate change and its consequences: what is happening and how to solve it

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Scientists note that in almost all regions of the planet there are cases of changes in the weather and extreme climate. They also relate to the state of the atmosphere, oceans, glaciers and the surface of the Earth. Some changes are unique, while others have been observed for a long time. And the worst thing is that many phenomena (for example, an increase in the level of the ocean) cannot be turned back.

In the period from 1850 to 1900, the average temperature on Earth increased by about 1.1 degrees Celsius. But global warming can no longer be stopped: scientists believe that in the next 20 years the value will reach or even exceed 1.5 ° C.

Researchers warn that climatic changes will affect all regions of the planet. Most likely, the summer will become longer and hotter, and winter will be shorter. Even seemingly a small rise in an average temperature of 2 ° C will strengthen the load on healthcare and complicate the management of agriculture.

Maybe you want to deal with this issue and conduct scientific research? Read the article to study the basics of the topic and find out how they work on it today.

Greenhouse effect what is it?

The greenhouse effect is understood to mean the radiation radiation of the atmosphere, which leads to heating the surface of the earth. In the absence of the atmosphere, the temperature on our planet would be at24 ° C. This is a very low indicator: it would lead to the fact that the species diversity of plants and animals has been greatly reduced, and a person could not survive in such conditions. However, now the average annual temperature is 15 ° C. The difference is 39 ° C and is called a greenhouse effect. Due to the accumulation of gases in the lower layer of the atmosphere, the planet is heated.

The greenhouse effect itself is not a bad phenomenon. It provides the life of most organisms on Earth. However, now its strengthening is observed, which causes great concern among scientists. But first, consider how it arises.

It all starts with shortwave radiation from the sun. Part of the rays (mainly rigid ultraviolet) are delayed in the atmosphere, while the rest come to the surface of the planet. Under their action, the Earth heats up and radiates long waves of the infrared spectrum. Most of them cannot pass through the atmosphere due to greenhouse gases located there. Such rays are reflected and returned back to the surface, which is why it is heated.

The most “active” from greenhouse gases water vapor. In addition, carbon dioxide is in the atmosphere (and its amount is growing due to industry), methane and nitrogen oxide.

Among the reasons for increasing the greenhouse effect, scientists distinguish the following:

  • The use of combustible minerals for industrial purposes. When burning coal, oil and natural gas, a huge amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse compounds is released into the atmosphere;
  • transport. Cars and trucks also pollute the air with exhaust gases;
  • deforestation. The trees absorb carbon dioxide, thereby reducing its content in the atmosphere. With cutting each tree, the amount of CO2 grows and leads to an increase in the greenhouse effect;
  • Forest fires. This is another serious problem, as they also lead to the destruction of trees;
  • population growth. This item also affects the content of greenhouse gases, let it indirectly. The growing population requires more and more resources: housing, food and life, clothes. This requires an increase in industrial scale. And factories, in turn, enhance the greenhouse effect;
  • Using fertilizers. Most of the agricultural chemistry emit nitrogen during the decomposition;
  • Garbage at landfills. Decomposing, he also emits greenhouse gases.
  • The essence of the problem

    Over the past 40 years, greenhouse gas emissions have doubled, and the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is now 40% more than in the middle of the 19th century. Since the beginning of industrialization, the temperature on the ground has increased by 1 ° C. It seems that this value is small, but even it leads to serious changes. Scientists suggest that by 2030-2050 this indicator will increase by another half a percent, and by 2100 the temperature will become 3-4 ° C more than pre-industrial values. Where it leads? Let’s understand.

    The main problem is the consequences of climatic changes. So, due to an increase in temperature, there is a gradual evaporation of the seas and oceans. According to the predictions of scientists, after 200 years, such a phenomenon as drying of natural reservoirs will become noticeable. This will lead to a reduction in the number of plants and animals, as well as water deficiency for people.

    But there is another side of the problem. Simultaneously with the drying of natural reservoirs, scientists notice the melting of glaciers. Because of this, the level of water of the ocean is increased. In recent years, flooding and flooding of coastal regions began to arise much more often, which means that the water level really continues to grow.

    Climate change will also affect the life of all living things. For example, territories that now receive little precipitation will eventually become completely arid and unsuitable for life. People will not even be able to use them for household needs (growing plants and animal breeding). Global warming can negatively affect the health of people who are not accustomed to high temperatures. The likelihood of thermal and sunlight, dehydration, problems with the cardiovascular system and strokes increases.

    You can read more about this, for example, on El Pais.

    How to solve the problem

    You can stop the problem associated with climatic changes, but it must be approached globally. For example, take measures against delete, develop new, more environmentally friendly energy sources for cars and production. If you take the right measures, global warming can be stopped, and the concentration in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases will cease to increase.

    Of course, every scientific institution is unique to this problem. For example, employees of the Institute of Ecology of the Russian University of Friendship of Peoples are dealing with the issue of replacing traditional hydrocarbon fuel on CO2-neutral biofuel. Of course, a complete replacement is unlikely to be possible, however, even a partial introduction of environmentally friendly energy sources will help reduce the effect on the climate ensemble of the atmosphere.

    Microdorlings are considered as such biofuels at the Institute of Ecology. This is a renewable raw material that has a great perspective. Natural photosynthetic potential on Earth does not withstand the load from human life. However, microconventions can cope with it. They have a large specific surface, so that the processes of photosynthesis are faster and more active (after all, they are responsible for the processing of carbon dioxide into oxygen). Industrial cultivation of algae can reduce atmospheric pollution by greenhouse gases.

    This complex project is implemented not only by RUDN employees, but also by famous scientists from around the world. Thus, the Institute of Ecology is helped by the candidate of technical sciences and the head of the Laboratory OIVT RAS Vlaskin M.FROM., as well as Professor Kumar Vinod from India. In the field of climatic and neutral waste management, a huge contribution brings cooperation with the Jordanian professor of the international level of Hani a. KDAS.

    Why is it worth learning ecology in RUDN? First of all, because the university was the first state accredited by the state for validation and verification of greenhouse gases. This decision was made on November 11, 2021. The main task of RUDN scientists is to check reports regarding greenhouse gas emissions. Perhaps in the future such bodies will be recognized at the international level.

    As experts and technical experts will work as many as 12 employees of the Institute of Ecology of the RUDN. Now they will begin to validate and verify emissions in a large number of companies. This is evidence that the RUDN scientists have reached a lot in their direction, and now the institution of ecology will develop even more active. It’s time to join him!

    We solve the problem together

    If you want to become a researcher and solve the problem of greenhouse gas pollution together with RUDN scientists? Specialists in this area are prepared by the new master’s program of the Institute of Ecology “Environmental Bioenginery”. It is implemented as part of the direction of “energy and resource-saving processes in chemical technology, petrochemistry and biotechnology”.

    Students of this program not only study the theoretical foundations of the profession, but also learn to solve applied problems related to the work of the ecologist. Meetings with partner companies, round tables, cases of cases and discussing current issues help in this. Graduates of the direction can not only manage projects in the field of bioengineering, but also carry out monitoring, create water purification systems and solid waste management. In the second year, the student focuses on one of the areas of professional activity:

  • assessment of the quality of water resources;
  • waste management;
  • Development of renewable energy sources and climate project management.
  • Students have the opportunity to participate in the program of double diplomas, as well as conduct scientific research on joint grants. Practice takes place in the largest state and private companies of the retreat industry, such as Gazpromneft-Moscow Oil Refinery, Ecostandard Group, FBU Rostest-Moscow, Huber Technologies; OJSC Ecotechnology, Voskresensky Mineral Fertilizer Plant.

    After graduation, a undergraduate can work as an engineer in many areas. For example, to protect the environment, manage waste, implement projects for sustainable development. An ecologist interested in his profession can build a good career and in production.

    Invest in yourself and your future! We are waiting for you on the master’s program “Environmental Bioenginery” at the Institute of Ecology!

    Head of the program “Bioengineering OS”

    Kurbatova Anna Igorevna:

  • Candidate of Biological Sciences with a degree in Ecology.
  • Associate Professor of the Department of Environmental Safety and Product Management.
  • Deputy.head of the body for validation and verification on the quality of the Institute of Ecology RUDN.
  • Internal auditor of the Validation and Validation of the Institute of Ecology RUDN.
  • Expert in the field of verification of PG.
  • Invited professor at the University of Granada (Spain), Jordanian University of Science and Technology (Jordan).
  • The head of the joint educational program with the Tomsk State University “Environmental Quality Assessment: Management and Modeling” .
  • The head of the training program “Enforcement safety for environmental safety during work with hazardous waste”.
  • The head of the educational programs of the undergraduate and magistracy “Energy and resource-saving processes in chemical technology, petrochemistry and biotechnology”, international expert ECTN for accreditation of programs in areas.03.02, 18.04.02.
  • Member of the International Waste Group (IWWG).
  • Sustainability scientific journal coeditor (Switzerland, Q2 Oblast) Special issue “Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Local Issue with Global Impacts”.
  • Lecturer DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service). The lecture cycle is devoted to the topic of business management in the field of rational consumption and the organization of sustainable production “Transition to Sustainable Consumption and Production Inindustry: The Business Management Context”.
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