Types of biocenosis | The role of species and relationships in the biocenosis

Everyone knows that a certain number of organisms, plants and animals get along together on a certain piece of land or water. Their totality, as well as the relationship and interaction between themselves and with other abiotic factors, is commonly called biocenosis. This word is formed by merging two Latin words “bios” life and “cenosis” common. Any biological community consists of such components of bioceosis as:

  • fauna zoocenosis;
  • vegetation phytocenosis;
  • microorganisms microbiocenosis.
  • It should be noted that phytocenosis is the dominant component that determines zoocenosis and microbiocenosis.

    Types of biocenosis | The role of species and relationships in the biocenosis

    The origin of the concept of “biocenosis”

    At the end of the 19th century, the German scientist Karl Möbius studied the habitats of oysters in the North Sea. In the course of his study, he established that these organisms can only exist in specific conditions, which include depth, current speed, salt content and water temperature. In addition, he noted that strictly certain types of marine life live along with oysters. So in 1877, with the release of his book “Oysters and Oyster Farming”, the term and concept of biocenosis appeared in the scientific community.

    Types of biocenosis | The role of species and relationships in the biocenosis

    Classification of biocenoses

    Today there are a number of signs according to which the biocenosis is classified. If we are talking about ordering based on size, then it would be:

  • macrobiocenosis, which studies mountain ranges, seas and oceans;
  • mesobiocenosis forests, swamps, meadows;
  • microbiocenosis a single flower, leaf or stump.
  • Also, biocenoses can be classified depending on the habitat. Then the following types will be highlighted:

  • marine;
  • freshwater;
  • ground.
  • The simplest systematization of biological communities is their division into natural and artificial biocenoses. The former include primary ones, formed without human influence, as well as secondary ones, which were influenced by natural elements. The second group includes those who have undergone changes due to anthropogenic factors. Let’s take a closer look at their features.

    Natural biocenoses

    Natural biocenoses are associations of living beings created by nature itself. Such communities are historically established systems that are created, developed and function according to their own special laws. German scientist B. Tishler outlined the following characteristics of such formations:

    Types of biocenosis | The role of species and relationships in the biocenosis
  • Biocenoses arise from ready-made elements, which can be both representatives of individual species and entire complexes;
  • individual parts of the community can be replaced by others. So one species can be forced out by another, without negative consequences for the entire system;
  • taking into account the fact that in the biocenosis the interests of different species are opposite, then the entire supraorganismal system is founded and maintained due to the action of the counteraction force;
  • each natural community is built by the quantitative regulation of one species by another;
  • the dimensions of any supraorganismal systems depend on external factors.
  • Artificial biological systems

    Artificial biocenoses are formed, maintained and regulated by man. Professor B.G. Johansen introduced into ecology the definition of anthropocenosis, that is, a natural system deliberately created by man. It can be a park, square, aquarium, terrarium, etc.d.

    Among man-made biocenoses, agrobiocenoses are distinguished these are biosystems created for food production. They include:

  • reservoirs;
  • channels;
  • ponds;
  • pastures;
  • fields;
  • forest plantations.
  • A typical feature of agrocenosis is the fact that it is not able to exist for a long period of time without human intervention.

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