Vascular plants are an extensive group of living organisms, the organs of which differ in the presence of vascular-fiber bundles, t.e. have specialized fabrics that provide the process of moisture. Almost all higher plants are customary to attribute to this category with rare exceptions (for example, mossy). The same plants in which vascular bundles are absent are called cellular.
It is customary to attribute organisms that have vessels, or, more simply, tubes that provide the body with the transfer of fluid and nutrients, to vascular plants.
It is customary to attribute all the highest plants to vascular plants:
In plants that have no vessels, in science it is customary to attribute mosses, antocerotoid and liver, as well as higher green algae and several other distinguishing features of species.
The vast majority of higher plants, regardless of their species, are characterized by the presence of the vascular system, which includes Xilime and Floem located in all organs from roots to leaves.
If we talk about the structure of vascular plants, then it is extremely diverse, and can radically differ even within plants of the same species.
Many disappeared representatives of the ancient flora were not at all distinguished by the presence of clearly differentiated to certain organs of the body, and simply, they completely absent a system of roots, leaves, and so on.
The vascular plants in our time are highly adaptable to the environment-and the presence of specialized organs just reflects their adaptability level to the conditions of the ground-air surrounding space. This is primarily due to the fact that the main problem for any plant is to obtain water and for its plants, the vascular has roots, and any other systems (leaves, stems, fruits, etc.D.) demonstrated a high level of variability from the form to the form depending on the surrounding conditions.
Moreover, the shape and structure of the entire structure of the plant is controlled at the genetic level, however, some of the characteristics (if we talk about size or color solution) have a sufficient indicator of flexibility with changes.
Any vascular plants are formed from several large systems, parts of which, in turn, are divided into less significant organs:
This system ensures the consolidation of plants by penetrating the soil and also guarantees the absorption of water and other substances (the same ions) that are of a dominant value for the entire plant.
The root system evolved a little later than the entire structure of shoots as adaptive measures for existence on land.
This system, in turn, consists of several no less important structures, which, first of all, include stems, which, in turn, are a platform for the placement of leaves that play the main role in the implementation of the process of photosynthesis.
Moreover, the location, parameters, and many other characteristics that are critical for the process of productive development of substances of organic nature. Other organs of plants flowers, fruits and seeds are reproductive organs, which are also formed on the escape.
If we talk about a vegetative escape, then in its composition and, more precisely, internodes, nodes, sheet and kidney include the structure of the repeating node,. And it is the bosom bud that is the side peak of the escape, with which the plant gets the opportunity to branch, as well as providing the ability to replace the main escape if it has suffered or was eaten.
Both the root system and shoots develop through endings, which are the basis for the development of apical merisystems, called the apexa.
Vascular plants are characterized by the presence of many types of tissues:
The types of cells of these tissues differ significantly in their parameters, the position regarding other cells, as well as in the thickness of their cell wall.
Thus, the cells of the mechanical tissue that provide plant support have more massive cell walls with the presence of several cellulose levels, as well as many enhancing molecules (for example, lignin and pectin).
Flowering and vascular cells fill the root and stem and thanks to this they are called fabric systems. The main cover tissue of plants is an epidermis and in most organisms it is represented by one layer of cells that create the protection of the external property.
It is in the tasks of cells of the main tissue that the process of photosynthesis is the implementation of the process, as well as giving mechanical strength to the entire plant, and vascular tissues provide the necessary fluids; Educational cells provide replenishment with new cells of other tissues.
Vascular bundles in plants
Vascular bundles are a fiber of conductive tissue that provides the process of supplying fluid to the body (including mineral salts and nutrients) of any vascular plant stretching from the roots, through the barrel towards the leaves. This is a kind of equivalent of other systems available in animals blood and lymphatic.
The composition of the vascular beam includes two types of fabric:
The xylem is usually formed from blood vessels (if we are talking about floral plants) or from tracheids (other vascular organisms) all of them are inanimate hollow cells, secured by dense walls with the content of the polymer of lignin, and forming the tubes, thanks to which the water transportation is transported.
Floem is formed from living cells that make up the elements of the sieve-pipe, between the components of which the sieve plates are formed, equipped with pores that make it possible to pass through molecules through them.
The components of the sieve tubes are not equipped with the usual components such as the core or ribosomes, however, the companions are located nearby, which are just functioning in order to maintain the existence of sieve tubes.
It is interesting that in those plants that form a secondary thickening, these two types of fabric are separated by a slight layer of another fabric cambium from which such a new vascular type is created.
The main element of the conductive system is precisely a conducting bunch of two types of fabric, to which in some case the cambium also joins.
In some cases, you can also find an incomplete bunch, in the creation of which only one type of fabric is involved-either xylem, or flue, and sometimes parenchymic cells are created in tissues of this kind.
The conducting bundle itself is formed from Prombium, t.e. primary conductive tissues protofloems, from which the protoxylmes later develop, changing the maxilee and metalem replacing over time.
Depending on the location of the two tissues xylem and flue and it is customary to distinguish such types of conducting beams from the presence of cambium:
Signs and characteristics
Researchers are customary to determine vascular plants depending on several basic morphological characteristics:
The process of evolution of such fabric allowed vascular plants to achieve more significant sizes than other species of plants that differ in the lack of specialized conductive moments and they are limited by more modest sizes.
Two types of fabrics that make up vascular fabrics are closely interconnected and their combination (one xylem and one thread of the Floem) and form the socalled vascular bundle.
In all other, disobedient, plants, the main and main phase of development is gametophyte that produces gametes, t.e. a cell equipped with only one set of chromosomes.
In this case, the vehicles of the fluid in the cells of these plants take place either in xylene, which carries aquatic and other solutions up the plant in the direction of the leaves, or in the flue, which tolerates organic compounds in the opposite direction.
The fluid and nutrient compounds of the inorganic type are extracted from the soil thanks to the root system of the plant and then is supplied to the body tissues using xylem. But those elements of organic substances that are produced due to the vital activity of the plant (for example, the same sucrose that appears in the process of photosynthesis in the leaves) are distributed thanks to the Floem and it acts just in the opposite direction.
The value of vascular plants
The vascular plants include a huge number of organisms: both the highest spore plants (fern and plan), as well as all the seeds, and each of the groups of this department has its own characteristics, which is associated with the diploid or haploid phase of ontogenesis. These department is all widespread and its significance in nature and human life is difficult to underestimate.
In accordance with this, vascular plants are customary to be divided into groups:
The whole variety of vascular plant is characterized by a huge meaning for the activity and existence of mankind. Most of them are known for the presence of edible fruits, some have a decorative value they are usually used for decor, but they produce medicines. In a word, without vascular plant species, people would feel insurmountable problems with progress and the development of civilization.
Representatives of vascular plants
It is customary to divide vascular plants in science into several types:
Thus, fern, psilophytes, plainlike and horsetails are included in the groups of lower plants, and the last three groups are called pterodophytas this is due to the fact that such plants are propagated by free sporangia, t.e. splitting spores.
Although such vascular plants are quite adapted to life on land, they resemble a different species Mokhovid in the fact that as an atavism, reminiscent of the water period of life, their male gametes need a liquid environment for the process of fertilization.
There are so many species of vascular plants that it is easier to talk not about species, but about plant types that can be found on the entire surface of the planet:
The crown of such a plant can be of any type from the pyramidal to the rounded, and usually consists of branches, also equipped with a wide variety of foliage species from evergreen to deciduous.
On trees you can find a wide variety of flowers of different sizes and varieties, and many of the trees are distinguished by edible fruits (apple, pear).
Shrubs are usually evergreen or deciduous, but the shapes and colors of the leaves vary to a large extent depending on the type. Typically, shrubs are characterized by the presence of colors that perform a more decorative value. It is for this reason that shrubs are grown in the territories of gardens and terraces (azalea, for example).
A cactus can grow up to 20 meters, and it can be about 3 cm and it is usually grown exclusively with a decorative purpose in gardens and on balconies.
Disading vascular plants
Plants in their most part are characterized by the ability to form organic matter and it is not surprising that they occupy the most important place among other components of the surrounding space.
Plant resources and their capabilities are colossal they are able to ensure the existence of a huge number of living organisms on the planet people, animals of course, if these resources are used wisely and not forget about the measures necessary for their protection and reproduction.
But recently, under the influence of a wide variety of factors (and, above all, the decisive role here has been played, of course, anthropogenic), many of the previously common plant species simply disappear and die.
That is why recently the issue of preserving the diversity of life on the planet has become quite acute and turned into an urgent problem for many states of the world. So, in the last century MSOP (t.e. The International Security Union) put forward a proposal to many states to take an active part in the process of creating lists of species of wildlife (including plants) that belong to the disappearance. In this way, red books appeared.
In red books, all rare representatives of the flora and fauna on the planet are highlighted in several groups:
Habitat of vascular plants
The biological environment of the body is usually called the ground-air environment, which is formed on the surface of the planet and in the initial, lower, layers of air, t.e. In the atmosphere: it is here that most living organisms live plants, animals, mushrooms and protozoa.
The environment of the body is usually called an ecological niche, t.e. the territory where individual species of plants and animals live; As a rule, this applies to the zone where a specific organism lives, and where it finds nutrition, protection and the ability to reproduce. Simply put, this is a natural, or physical environment that supports the population population.
Modification of all systems of the body of vascular plants (roots, stems, foliage) enable their species to survive without problems in a variety of surrounding conditions and such conditions are very diverse, up to the most extreme. And it is the ability of vascular organisms to exist normally in a wide variety of environments that can be considered the main factor that ensures the moment of domination of this group.
Propagation of vascular plants
Any living organism from the moment of origin to the moment of death passes through a certain chain of sequences of genetically programmed events relating to the formation and development of the body, which make up the life cycle.
So, all vascular plants are characterized by exactly the same life cycle of reproduction, or reproduction, which is distinguished by the alternation of two phases:
The transition between diplomas and haplophazes usually occurs due to the meiasis of haploid disputes, and in the reverse order this occurs accompanied by the merger of the gametes through the formation of diplia.
The life cycle of the plant begins from the moment of formation of the spore from which the haploid gametophyte is formed, which produces the germ cells t.e. sexual reproduction occurs. And from the formed zygota, diploid sporophyte develops that does not have genital organs and produce disputes.
In most vascular, sporophyte is dominant in their life development: this cell is more complicated and larger than the gametophyte. It is the sporophytes that represent the plants familiar to us shrubs, trees, flowers. But it must be borne in mind that gametophytes are freeliving organisms.