Water erosion of the soils of the Earth types, causes and protection against water erosion

Water erosion is the process of destruction of the soil as a result of the influence of rain and melt water, glaciers and seas. As a result, particles of nitrogen, calcium and other elements are washed off the ground. The injured areas eventually become swamps and cease to bring crop. However, after 5-10 years, the soil is regenerated, although its fertility is noticeably lost. In the process of selfhealing, many weeds appear on the basis.

Types of water erosion

There are several types of water erosion. It is ravine, superficial and linear. There is also planar erosion, as a result of which small erosion appears, which is easy to fight, although this leaves its mark. As a result, the arable layer of the soil suffers greatly and the lower layers have to be plowed. Linear erosion occurs under the influence of very concentrated runoff. At first, the erosion is about 20 cm, but then their depth grows and reaches a meter. If runoff continues to break down the soil at that location, a ravine will form. Its walls are gradually overgrown with different types of vegetation and begin to crumble. So ravines eventually become gullies. Their depth is determined by the basis of erosion. The basis is called such a surface level at which all the flowing waters can no longer erode the soil. Usually the basis of this process is the level of the sea or river. However, this figure may decrease, and the water will again begin to erode the ravine.

Causes of water erosion

Water erosion occurs not only due to natural factors, but also due to human activities. For example, due to the creation of such a soil treatment technique that destroys its structure. At the moment, this is the main reason for the appearance of the process of destruction of the earth. Other factors in the process are deforestation and overgrazing of animals in the same area. The intensity of land destruction is regulated by forest cover. So, as this indicator decreases, the flow increases by about 20%. However, at the same time, the period of influence of the waters is reduced, limited to the period of floods or rainstorms. This is due to the fact that vegetation has roots, whose system does not allow the soil to degrade as a reservoir that is able to accumulate water. All this changes the structure of all the waters of this area, groundwater flows are mixed with surface water and, as a result, the flow capacity is growing.

Water erosion protection

When protecting against erosion, it is important to correctly position fields and roads, to carry out horizontal processing of plots, and to prevent the growth of ravines. At the moment, ramparts, ponds and water-absorbing structures such as trenches are actively used. Another effective remedy against water erosion is the construction of steps on the mountain slopes. It is performed only with a steepness of 30-40 degrees. Terracing helps not only to get rid of erosion and drought, but also provides the development of arid areas where horticultural work is actively carried out.

On slopes with a slight steepness, the indicator of which is not more than 10-12 degrees, the soil is cultivated in strips or using terraces, whose width does not exceed 3 meters.

When processing a site across the slope, a special relief of arable land arises. Furrows and rows of vegetation stop water runoff, and all moisture is perfectly absorbed into the soil. Consequently, the arable layer receives moisture, which increases its fertility.

However, it is easier to prevent the process of soil destruction by runoff than to get rid of the consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to use anti-mudflow structures, protect forests from deforestation, and correctly use pastures at the very beginning of land development in the mountains. This area is more prone to erosion. To prevent these dangerous processes, it is necessary to create plantations on the slopes, regularly drive cattle there. A particularly effective way to combat the destruction of the earth is the planting of forest belts, the creation of dams and dams, ditches that retain moisture. This will help reduce or eliminate surface runoff.

Water erosion in Eurasia

in Eurasia, water erosion is very common. About 80 million hectares are affected by it, and 50 million are very likely to suffer from it soon due to the location.

In the north, soils suffer from destruction in the direction from Voronezh to Chita. Cities such as Omsk, Chelyabinsk are subject to this. Siberia and Khakassia, Buryatia and Tuva suffer greatly. On a vast territory, two types of erosion rage at once: water and wind. These include sections of the Volga and Central Federal Districts. Their area is about 2.5% of the area of ​​all land.

Many in Eurasia and already wetlands. There are already 12 percent of them, most of which are arable land. Waterlogging takes place in the Siberian and Ural, Far Eastern Federal Districts. Lands in the south, in the zone with chernozem and in the north of the Caucasus suffer to a greater extent. This is due to the large volume of melt water.

At the moment, the climate of the European part of the country has become warmer, from which the flush increases during warm periods of time there are heavy showers. The layer of precipitation in this case is more than 10 mm. However, during the snowmelt in spring, the slopes suffer less, and there are no more ravines, as surface runoff is reduced.

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