Soil is an unusually important element of nature. For its wellbeing and good condition, favorable conditions are also needed, including water regime. In other words, the soil must be moistened taking into account its needs. The water regime of soil is all the liquid entering the ground, its condition and spending. For favorable soil development, it is necessary to observe the water balance.
Features of the water regime of soil
The water regime includes many processes consisting in the intake of moisture in the soil, as well as its physical condition, control of movement and expenses. This system consists of various elements: absorption, filtration, capillary rise, surface runoff, physical evaporation, freezing and freezing, liquid condensation.
The water balance is achieved due to the arrival of precipitation and additional sources in the form of groundwater and surface runoff. Liquid consumption is due to evaporation, transpiration process and infiltration into the soil. There is a specific moisture factor to help set the type of water regime.
Types of water regime
There are six main types of moisture entering the soil:
Permafrost often observed in the tundra. It is characterized by permafrost. This feature is achieved due to the close location of the frozen aquifer. With such a supply of moisture, there is very little precipitation, however, in summer the soil is oversaturated with water.
Flushing most often found in forest areas in which precipitation exceeds evaporation. All soil and existing rocks are washed with liquid every year to groundwater, as a result, enormous leaching occurs, and all soil formation products are carried out of the profile, which makes the earth acidic. In such regions, waterlogging of the soil often develops.
Periodically flushing the main features of the water regime are balanced precipitation and evaporation. During periods of drought, the soil is well moistened, without sinking to groundwater; during high humidity, through wetting or flushing is observed (this process can be carried out only once every few years and provokes the formation of gray forest soils, leached and podzolized chernozems).
Non-flushing most often found in the steppe, desert and dry steppe zones. This regime is characterized by strong evaporation, exceeding the ingress of atmospheric precipitation into the soil. All incoming liquid is concentrated at the upper levels of the soil. In such soils, there is a “dead horizon” that always remains wet.
Altitude this type is found in deserts, dry steppes and semi-deserts. In such regions, evaporation is much higher than precipitation. Moreover, the process of liquid evaporation takes place at the deepest levels, down to groundwater. If the soil contains a large amount of salt, then there is a high probability of solonetz formation.
Irrigational occurs in soils that are artificially irrigated. In this mode, flushing and non-flushing types are connected.
The water regime also contributes to the formation of automorphic, semi-hydromorphic and hydromorphic soils.
Stabilization of the water regime
The water regime must be regulated. This will contribute to a favorable water supply for plants. There are measures aimed at changing and adjusting the water balance, for example, draining very wet soils or irrigating the soil in arid regions.
The application of the developed measures will optimize the water regime of the soil.