The mushroom kingdom is diverse and magnificent, but perhaps the most famous and bright representative is a white mushroom, (lat.BoléTus edúlis). Has an attractive appearance and is common in cooking, as it has extraordinary taste. White mushroom, which is also called a boat, cow, capercaillie, binding, is a representative of the Belotov family, the department of basiamitset. «Forest celebrity» known to many, because it often enters the baskets of mushroom pickers.
A distinctive feature of the white mushroom is its color, which does not change even after processing: drying or frying. According to other sources, the white mushroom got its name due to its inimitable taste (in comparison with other representatives of the family, which also have a darker color on the cut).
White mushroom has the following structure: leg, pulp, hat and bedspread. Each element plays an important role in the formation of the body. Let us consider in more detail each of them:
Hat – White mushroom was so fond of people thanks to their subtle aroma and piquant taste. The hat of the forest celebrity grows with a diameter of 7 to 30 cm (in rare cases up to 50 cm) and has a characteristic brown-brown color.
In order to establish the life expectancy of the mushroom, it is necessary to carefully examine the hat: in young organisms it is convex, as if drawn, in adults and overripe – more flat and outstretched. From weather conditions, the fullness of a part of the fruit body changes, for example, when dried and strong wind, the surface can crack or cover a net of small wrinkles; During the rain, a film of mucus may form. In most cases, the mushroom hat looks even, neat, and soft to the touch with a velvety texture. The color of part of the fruit body depends on the age (it can be reddish-brown or milky white) and its density.
- Pulp – To understand whether the mushroom has ripened, it is enough to examine its pulp: it should be dense, juicy and fleshy, and, of course, white. Overripe plants have a yellowish tint and a more fibrous structure «hearts».
- Leg – The average full mushroom has a leg about 12 cm high (more tall plants reach 25 cm). The diameter of a part of the fruit body can vary from 7 to 10 cm. To determine which mushroom is in front of you, look at his leg: in white representatives of the Belotov family, it has a barrellike (pinshaped) shape. Its color can vary from white shades to saturated brown with dark red spots.
- Bedspread and spore powder – White mushrooms have perfectly clean base of the legs, which indicates the absence of the residues of the bedspread. As for the spore powder, it has a juicy olive-brown shade, and disputes – spindle form and very tiny size.
Porcini – A unique representative who is actively used in cooking and other areas. But the main drawback is that in nature there are socalled «False white mushrooms», which you certainly need to learn to determine, otherwise the result will not please the mushroom pipe.
For many decades, white mushroom has not lost its popularity. But it is important to understand that there are several varieties of white mushrooms that should not be confused among themselves.
Birch white mushroom
This species is often called spikelets. To distinguish the birch mushroom, it is enough to look at its color, as a rule, it is light. The colos-cap hat reaches 5-15 cm in diameter, the leg has a barrel-shaped shape and a pleasant white color. It is not surprising that you can find a white mushroom exclusively under birches. Accordingly, the plants of the plant can be considered all the territories on which such trees grow.
Oak white mushroom (mesh boat)
Brown hat with a grayish tint – The main distinguishing feature of oak white mushrooms. Mushrooms have a more loose pulp and are concentrated mainly in the Caucasian oaks.
Pine white mushroom
Often also called a bustloving Bolsotus. Distinctive features are a large hat of dark shades (sometimes even purple), brownish-red pulp, brown or white short, thick leg. You can meet a mushroom in pine forests in Europe and Asia, as well as America.
Spruce white mushroom
This species is one of the most common. Mushrooms have a reddish-brown hat, a long and thickened leg. You can find a forest celebrity in Europe.
Bronze white mushroom
The distinctive features of the booths of this group are the dark color of the legs and hats, the cylindrical shape of a part of the fruit body, white and pleasant flesh taste. Most often, coppercolored mushrooms can be found in North America and in Europe, in oak and beech forests.
Where it grows?
The main advantage of white mushrooms is their widespread. They grow on almost all the continents of the planet, except Antarctica and Australia. Europe, North and South America, Japan, China, Mexico, Caucasus, Kamchatka, Russia, British Islands – The main territories on which you can find white mushrooms.
When it grows?
Dimensions, color, structural features – All this depends on the place of growth of the white mushroom. The period of active growth begins in late spring – early summer. In October-November, mushroom processes appear in large quantities. White mushrooms ripen for a long time. They grow whole families or colonies-rings. That is why, seeing the whole «family» Borovikov, the mushroom pickered will definitely rise in the mood.
Representatives of the Bolovy family can grow in deciduous, coniferous, mixed forests. They are focused under pine trees, birch, fir trees, oaks, fir, and rakes. It is recommended to collect mushrooms in places where moss and lichen grow, as well as on loamy, sandy, sandy soils. Boroviki almost never grow in swamps and peat sites. Mushrooms adore light, do not like overwork of the soil and low air temperatures.
The white mushroom was also seen in the foresttundra and foreststeppe, while in the steppe zones the white mushroom is unrealistic to find.
How to distinguish a white mushroom from false?
In nature, there is such a thing as «False white mushroom». This is a separate type of lower plants that can easily be confused with potential prey. The people are a false white mushroom called a potter. There are several basic differences, thanks to which it is possible to determine a variety of representatives of the mushroom kingdom:
- Cut color – To determine which mushroom you collect, you need to cut it. The pulp of the genuine mushroom always remains white, while the inner layer of the fruit body of the potter will get dark and acquire a pinkish-brown tint.
- The structure of the leg – The gall mushroom has a very interesting legs structure – It has a peculiar pattern resembling a mesh (the boletus does not have this).
- Himenofor – In a false white mushroom, the tubular layer has a pinkish tint, in an edible genuine plant it is yellowish or white.
- Taste – Gorchak is easy to identify by trying the dish prepared from it. False mushroom has a bitter, unpleasant taste that does not change during heat treatment or frying. White Borovik has a pleasant aroma and piquant taste.
False mushroom in context
Gorchak – inedible double of white mushroom
In order not to be mistaken and not to serve a tasteless dish on the table, beginning mushroom pickers should carefully familiarize themselves with the main differences of the white mushroom and potter.
White mushroom is a source of beneficial substances, including vitamins A, C, B1, D, as well as ascorbic acid, selenium, calcium, iron, phytohormones, ergotionein. The plant contains a unique watersoluble compound – Riboflavin, which is responsible for the health and growth of skin, hair, nails and strengthening immunity in general. This substance helps to improve the state of the thyroid gland and maintain its functions.
The beneficial properties of white mushrooms include stimulation of the secretion of digestive juices. Mineral substances are also included, including sulfur and polysaccharides. The use of white fungi helps to prevent oncological diseases.
The unique composition of the hunkers allows you to provide antiinfectious, wound healing, tonic and antitumor effect. Mushrooms are an excellent source of useful proteins, provided that the food is made from predried foods.
The forest celebrity contains lecithin, which resists cholesterol deposits on the walls of blood vessels and is indicated for diseases such as atherosclerosis and anemia. Useful amino acids, in turn, contribute to the renewal of cells, as a result, are useful for kidneys, eyes, bone marrow and human liver.
Using white mushrooms in spring and autumn, you can provide the body with protection from various viruses, bacteria, carcinogens and fungi. The enzymes that make up the composition help in the breakdown of fiber, glycogen and fats. Before eating mushrooms, it is important to understand that they are extremely heavy food, so they need to be eaten in small quantities and preferably with other vegetables.
White mushroom is also valued due to its healing properties. In medicine, medications are made from it to improve metabolism, with a breakdown of strength and tuberculosis. In dried form, products are used to treat angina pectoris. Boar tinctures are used for ulcers and frostbite.
Despite the fact that the white mushroom refers to edible, it can also be poisoned and there are a number of contraindications to the use of the boorish. First of all, to refrain from dishes with the content of white mushrooms should be children and pregnant women. This is because mushrooms contain chitin, which is very difficult to absorb and creates an additional load for kidneys and digestive system. In addition, like any other product, the booth can cause an allergic reaction.
Contraindications to the use of white mushrooms:
- acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver;
- age up to 12-14 years;
- Bearing a child.
You can also poison with white mushrooms if you cook «False white mushroom», which happens very often due to unscrupulous and inexperienced mushroom pickers.
Growing at home
The most reliable and safe way to obtain fresh, environmentally friendly and reliable mushrooms is independent cultivation. In fact, the technology of breeding the boat at home is not at all complicated, but it will require the beginner maximum accuracy and perseverance. We admit, the procedure takes a lot of time, so you need to be ready for this.
As you know, white mushroom – Forest resident, therefore, on the site where it will grow, there must necessarily be trees (pines, birch, oaks, spruce or aspen) or the territory should be near the forest. Ideally, so that the age of the trees is at least 8-10 years old. Experienced summer residents grow mushrooms in two ways:
- from mycelium;
- From a spore located on a mushroom hat.
The first method implies the acquisition of a special highquality planting material and determine the profitable location. Mushrooms should be planted between May to September month. For a successful germination around the trunk of the selected tree, soil (about 15-20 cm of the upper layer) is removed and peat or compost is laid out (the layer should not exceed 3 cm). Mycelium is placed on prepared soil in a checkerboard pattern, observing a distance of 30 to 35 cm between pieces.
The laid mycelium is necessary «Cover» the soil that was removed earlier, and then pour it abundantly. It is recommended to mulch the site with straw, and then watering several times a week (top dressing is welcome). It is very important to cover the ground with moss, fallen foliage or spruce spruce. A year later, you can expect the first crop.
To implement the second method, you will need hats of mature or overripe white mushrooms. It is important to pay attention to which tree the boorus is obtained, because it is precisely for the same perennial plant that it will need to be planted in the future. White mushroom has the ability to deteriorate quickly, so after cutting it needs to be specially processed for 8 hours. After 10 hours, half of the minerals and macroelements of the booth is lost.
The extracted hats should be separated from the legs and soaked for a day in water (one bucket will be needed for 7-12 pieces). To achieve a good result, it is recommended to add alcohol to the liquid at the rate of 3-5 t.l. 10 l or sugar about 15-20 g. After 24 hours, the hats must be kneaded to the sourlike mass and strain through gauze. To land, you must first prepare a place (everything is done similarly to the first method). Water with spores should be poured on a fertile pillow, and lay out mushroom cake on top, remaining from the hats. Prepared soil is also covered with previously removed soil and straw.
The main care is in abundant, but not frequent watering. Before frosts, the clearing hides, in the spring «blanket» must be removed. A year later, you can enjoy the crop.
There are other methods of growing mushrooms, for example, in the forest you can dug up pieces of mycelium, resembling a chicken egg in size, and spread them into shallow pits under a tree on your site. Further, the holes are covered with soil and regularly watered. What is the way to grow mushrooms at home, solve only the mushroom. The main thing – This is regular and highquality care, as well as thorough preparation of soil. Homemade mushroom glades can bear fruit from 3 to 5 years.
Porcini – A very healthy and tasty product, but you must always be careful when collecting, processing and preparing a booth.