The elephant is known as one of the most overall mammals living on land. The weight of an adult animal can reach several tons (up to 5). Everything in the body of the elephant is intended to support this heavy weight: short powerful legs, upper teeth transformed into tusks and, of course, the most important organ of the elephant is the trunk.
The trunk of an elephant as his assistant
When you see an elephant, you immediately notice the main thing its trunk. In fact, it is a nose that has grown with the upper lip.
In fact, the trunk is precisely an ordinary nose that performs all the function necessary for the respiratory system. But, in addition, the trunk of an elephant has very wide functionality.
In fact, this is a fairly unique organ, which is a pipe consisting of muscles and there are at least 500 in the trunk and in which there are completely no bones (only cartilage on the nose). This tube inside is divided into several channels using a partition (it goes along the entire length!), and ends with two processes resembling fingers. With their help, the elephant is able to perform many most unusual actions, up to the rise of small items.
What is the elephant trunk capable of
The trunk of an elephant has approximately the same functionality as the hands of a person. Using it, the elephant can capture there are no small objects in the form of food leaves, fruits but also quench thirst.
Everything is simple here the water is typed in the trunk, and from there it goes into the mouth of the animal. In this case, water can not only be used for drinking, but also for watering. And if you replace water with the sand, you can play great. Such dust forms a crust on a thin and sensitive skin of an elephant (when compared with dimensions), which performs a protective function and helps the animal get rid of the influence of the sun and parasites. And this is not to mention the shock and defensive power of this body! They can even easily punish naughty elephants.
Babies of elephants use a trunk to be able to hold on to the tail of parents while traveling, and not get lost.
The functionality of the trunk
First of all, the trunk still provides the function of the respiratory organ-they help the animal breathe, smell and do everything else that relies on the nose.
In addition, using the trunk, elephants are capable of:
As a rule, the elephant is forced to drink at least 200 liters of water per day. And during the drought period for this purpose, the animal can tear pits (using tusks) up to a meter deep to be able to draw groundwater with a trunk.
About eight liters of fluid can fit into the trunk of an adult animal at the same time.
The elephant is a little not the only animal that can eat food with your breathing organ is also to get food with your nose. And it is precisely this shape of the nose that determines the food diet of the elephant plants, vegetables and fruits, which changes depending on both the season and the surrounding weather.
Most often, these animals prefer to tear off food from a height of about two meters, but in extreme cases, the elephant is able to reach for food and even stand on the hind legs. In this regard, Indian elephants in their diet prefer the foliage of trees and their roots, but the African species of elephants feeds mainly on grass.
To search for nutrition, elephants are required to overcome significant distances because this big animal requires an amazing amount of food: at least 300 kilograms per day.
And if suddenly the usual food is not enough, then the elephant chooses a bark torn off the tree, which, of course, causes damage to the environment. But in the substitution, elephants spread many plant species due to the special structure of their digestive system. In fact, these animals have a very low digestibility of the diet and they very remarkably tolerate eaten seeds to another soil.
Scientists have long proved that elephants are quite capable of communicating on infrasound waves, but even if there is such a unique opportunity, the trunk plays an important role in the communication of these animals.
As a rule, with the help of a trunk elephants:
So, mothers-prisoners to communicate with their elephants use a trunk-helping them to move, supporting them, to go to walk.
Successfully the trunk is used for education they can spank the offender, stroke as encouragement and show their attention.
The trunk, thanks to its flexibility, is able to reflect any blow and since this organ consists of muscles, it has great power: so, the weight of the trunk in an adult elephant reaches almost 150 kg, which provides it with the ability to cope with any predator.
In everyday life, the elephant will not be able to live without a trunk just like any person will be difficult without hands. And in childhood, elephants, first of all, learn to use this body, stepping on it and often not knowing where to apply.
Without a trunk, an elephant is unlikely to survive based on a huge number of functions that are laid on it. The animal breathes, eats, drinks, defends itself and communicates with its help. And even feels the road, being in an unfamiliar and dangerous area.
The life of elephants
Naturally, without a trunk, the elephant can neither eat nor drink. Surprisingly, if it suddenly happens that the elephant will lose the trunk, relatives will surely take care of it. They will feed him, help to get to his feet, remove obstacles from the path.
Usually elephants are herd animals and live in herd groups. It is interesting that in the herd there are usually either females (with kids) or adult males. In elephants, females take care of and take care of their elephants until the age of 15 years. But even after that, the male male can be in the herd-adults over 20 years old are expelled from it. The life expectancy of elephants is quite impressive these animals live up to 80 years.