Wind erosion of soils and lands of Eurasia types of soil deflation, causes, factors and soil protection


This is the process by which soil breaks down and rocks begin to be deposited. The roots of plants are also exposed, fertile particles of the earth often “wander” from place to place. All this is due to the influence of the wind. It is the arable layer of the earth that suffers. All processes that are associated with the activity of this element are called aeolian. These include the scattering of soils, their destruction.

Types of wind erosion

There are several classifications of wind erosion. According to the speed of the process, it is geological, that is, caused by natural factors. This is a variant of the norm which cannot be said about the erosion of anthropogenic. It is caused by some external factors, for example, the wrong watering regime. In this case, this will be called irrigation erosion.

In the presence of vegetation cover, the first type of erosion will be present. In this case, the soil is perfectly restored, because under normal conditions this process never stops. But, if the natural vegetation is destroyed, the second type of soil destruction takes place. The causes of such erosion are the improper use of land for agricultural work. Most often this occurs on the territory of the steppe or forest-steppe, in areas with dissected relief. However, soils in which there is a lot of humus and carbonates suffer more than others because of their granulometric composition.

The process of destruction of the earth by wind can be everyday and short-term. The latter type includes tornadoes and hurricanes, storms. Then the wind can be about 15-20 m/s.

Consequences of wind erosion

The consequences of wind erosion are terrifying. In just a few hours, a storm can easily carry away the topsoil for hundreds of kilometers. Subsequently, the dust that has risen as a result of such a tornado can pollute the nearest body of water. However, the matter is not limited to them the atmosphere, which is seriously dusty, also suffers. Even though the wind speed usually increases during the day and reaches its maximum at midday, causing more damage. Although there are also cases when the storm lasted about 90 hours without subsiding.

It also happens that some territory is subject to both wind and water erosion. In this case, water washes away a significant part of the upper layer, then the earth dries up so that it becomes dust. This is due to repeated tillage. Then the wind blows this dust away. If the summer rains are quite heavy, they wash away the soil. But, if they practically do not end, the earth suffers more and ravines begin to form.

As a result of erosion, the land loses its fertility, its chemical composition changes. Consequently, the quality of plants suffers, and chemicalization ceases to give the desired effect. The country’s economy is suffering from all this.

If steps are not taken to protect the land, tons of soil could be affected. Humus will be weathered, this will lead to an ecological disaster. According to research results, after storms and hurricanes, 10 cm of the arable layer can be lost. The creation of each centimeter takes several hundred years, so the soil is unlikely to be able to recover.

Wind erosion factors

One of the most important factors of wind erosion is wind speed. No less important is the direction of the wind that dominates the area. Another factor is the relief, that is, the steepness of the slope and its shape. Much depends on its direction, which can be north and south.

Scientists pay great attention to whether the soil is well moistened. If this indicator is normal, the land is less prone to erosion. Air temperature during dangerous periods also matters. Experts also calculate the days when rains form runoff.

Wind erosion protection

Today, the soil is protected in various ways. The crop rotation method is popular. It lies in the fact that the main cultures and couples alternate. They also use forest reclamation. With the help of soil-protective plantations, waterlogged lands are drained, the level of groundwater becomes lower.

Hydromeliorative devices are actively used. In winter, snow is rolled in strips, shields are placed that trap snow. It also helps that plants are planted according to special schemes. Perennial shrubs that grow in stripes perfectly protect the soil from deflation. The alternation of pure fallows and root crops with tubers also helps.

The best effect can be achieved with the help of flat-cut tillage, frequent watering. This type of processing should be used across slopes. Hollowing is also often used, in which small depressions are created in which water accumulates and at the same time the runoff is reduced. This method is used if corn grew on the territory. The method also works after a chill.

The earth is also protected with the help of windbreaks. They are created by arranging trees so that they are at an angle to the prevailing wind direction. The effectiveness of the event depends on the density of trees.

So, wind erosion is a very dangerous process that can severely damage in the spring if the wind speed reaches 15 meters per second. However, the soil will suffer even more if it is loosened, but the plants have not yet had time to ripen.

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