Xoloitzcuintli: all about the dog, description and photo


  • Country of origin: Mexico
  • The size:
  • Growth:
    Miniature 25-35 cm
    medium 36-45 cm
    standard 46–55 cm
  • The weight:
    Petite 2.3-6.8 kg
    medium 6.8-14 kg
    standard 11–16 kg
  • Age:
    14–20 years old
  • FCI breed group:
    Spitz and breeds of primitive type
  • Brief information

  • One of the most ancient breeds in the world;
  • Representatives of the breed come in three sizes;
  • Considered a hypoallergenic breed.
  • History of the breed

    Xoloitzcuintli (or Sholoitzcuintli) is an ancient breed of dog, the first mention of which dates back to 3000 BC. In Aztec culture, she was considered a sacred animal, escorting souls to the afterlife. These dogs were often sacrificed in funeral rites.

    This breed of dog formed naturally without selective human intervention. She owes her extravagant appearance to a random genetic mutation. The gene responsible for the lack of coat turned out to be stable and stuck to entire generations.

    The name of the breed comes from two Aztec words: “xolotl” (deity of the world of the dead and fire) and “itzcuintli” (dog). Since ancient times, people believed that these animals are able to heal from diseases with the help of the warmth of their body. Often dogs of this breed were also used as food. Their meat, as the Aztecs thought, gave strength to men and could even reveal the gift of clairvoyance in a person.

    However, after Mexico was conquered by the Spaniards, the breed was practically destroyed for the pagan cult and worship. Miraculously managed to save a few individuals in remote Mexican settlements. However, a hard fate awaited the newly increased animal population: in the 19th century in the West, these dogs were used as raw materials for the manufacture of leather goods. As a result, the breed was again almost completely exterminated. And only in the XX century, work began on its revival.

    As an independent breed, the Xoloitzcuintle was recognized in Mexico in 1956. Since then, it has been considered a national treasure of the country. In the second half of the 20th century, thanks to the efforts of naturalist Norman Pelham Wright, it was possible to completely revive the Xoloitzcuintle breed and achieve its worldwide distribution. Today, these dogs are no longer used for personal gain and are bred exclusively as faithful pets.


    The Xoloitzcuintle, or Mexican hairless dog, was considered in antiquity to be healing, that is, touching it was healing. And today, communication with this kind and affectionate pet can cheer up anyone.

    Dogs of this breed they are also called Ksolo smart, polite and intelligent. They do not bark too often and prefer to spend time in silence. In addition, they are warmly related to family friends, but they will certainly protect their in case of danger.

    Ksolittskuyntli are inquisitive and smart. They have a good memory, so training them is easy enough. The main thing is to start education> at an early age and be sure to socialize the puppy.

    Ksolittskuyntli need to communicate. This is a calm dog that loves to be in the spotlight, although it does not impose its company. Representatives of this breed love games and activity with the owner, especially in puppy.

    Ksolitzkuintli get along well with other animals if they grew together. But there are also pets who can be jealous of their master.

    Xoloitzcuintle are very loyal to children, they allow kids to do almost anything they want. The dog will not mind fun and loud games and will gladly support a noisy pastime. If the pet gets tired, he will calmly leave the room.

    Description of Xoloitzcuintle

    Dogs of the Xoloitzcuintle breed can be of three sizes: miniature (up to 35 cm), medium (up to 45 cm) and standard (up to 60 cm).

    The main external feature is the absence of wool, for which many people love them. Hairless dogs may, however, have a stiff sparse scruff (up to 2.5 cm), as well as coarse hairs on the forehead or a small tassel on the tail. Hair on any other part of the body or a tuft on the top of the head are considered major disqualification faults. The skin should not be flabby, it is smooth, close to the body and does not form folds.  

    Xoloitzcuintli: all about the dog, description and photo

    These dogs are characterized by a stretched body, exceeding the height of the animal at the withers. The paws of the dog are of a hare type, the muscles of the limbs are well expressed.

    The dog has a wolf-type head, the muzzle tapers slightly towards the nose. Lobe can be black, coffee or flesh. Ears set high and straight, very soft, not hanging or cropped. Almond eyes can be yellow, brown, or black. Beige or pink eyelid pigmentation is not allowed. The color of the dog can be black, bluish-gray and gray. Light colors are less common.

    Sometimes Xoloitzcuintle are born completely covered in hair. This is one of the varieties of this breed. Provided it meets all other breed standards and has a minimum of three generations of hairless ancestors, such a dog may be judged as a purebred.


    The advantage of xoloitzcuintle is the absence of wool. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the condition of the pet’s skin. Do not allow the dog to stay in the sun for a long time: it can get burned. Xoloitzcuintle do not smell, and they do not need frequent washing. But, nevertheless, after each bath, it is recommended to use a moisturizer, as washing the dog’s skin will dry out. You can just periodically wipe the dog with a damp towel.

    Interestingly, representatives of this breed often have an incomplete set of teeth, but this is not considered a disease.

    Conditions of detention

    Of course, the Xoloitzcuintle is not made for the street. She cannot live on a chain or in an aviary, but she feels great in an apartment or in a private house. She needs frequent active walks. Please note that in cold weather, the pet needs warm clothes, as dogs of this breed do not have wool to warm them.

    Predisposition to disease

    Dogs of this breed have excellent health, thanks to natural selection passed over several millennia. However, sometimes animals can suffer from certain skin diseases (dermatitis, allergies, sunburn, skin plaque), as well as weakness of the cartilage joints (effect of “dangling ears”) and tooth loss.

    In very cold weather, it is recommended to wear outer clothing on the dog to avoid frostbite.

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