Yellow or Black woodpecker (lat. Dryocopus Martius) a bird that belongs to the detachment of woodpeckers, the woodpecker family. Yellow is slightly larger than the daw, its length varies from 420 to 486 mm. The wingspan of the representative of the woodpeckers ranges from 715 to 800 mm.
This species is located in the Red Book of the Kursk and Lipetsk region, North Ossetia. Representatives of the species are not guarded in any way.
This bird is a bit during a nesting period. During the flight, this representative of the woodpecker publishes Tyr-Tyr-Styr. When landing for adds, “ky-ya-ya” shouts. In the mating season, Klay-Code is spreading. Before mating, individuals seem to me. There are also other types of sounds. A common form of behavior the creation of recesses in trees trunks. In the spring, these birds can drum.
The color of the plumage of this bird is black. The color does not change depending on the season. The top of the head in an adult male is red, and the rest of the body is black. On the belly, the plumage is rather dull. The primary flyer feathers have brown-black fan, and the secondary ones are painted in black and do not have. The paws of this bird are dark, like claws. The beak of the representative of the woodpeckershaped rock color, there is yellowness in the area of connection. Raduzhina eyes white or yellowish.
The adult females in the back of the back of the head has a red spot.
Molting begins with the pen of X, and its direction is distal. Molt occurs after the final of the nesting period in June. In September, the molting ends. Small feathers in most individuals are replaced throughout October.
Veil dwells in Eurasia, on the coast of the Sea of Japan on the Shangraskiysk Islands and on Sakhalin. In Asia, Zhelon can be found in the south to southwest Hangai and Shanxi, on the territory of the Korean Peninsula. In the Greater Caucasus, this bird is also common. The large hearth is located in Iran. Another is located in South China. This species lives on the Kola Peninsula, representatives nest in the lower reaches of the Onega River. Rarely nests in the forests at the Irtysh, in the forests, which are located in the southwest of Altai.
Yellow prefers coniferous and mixed forests. On the territory of Belarus, birds choose pine forests and oak forests. This species is trying to avoid Olshanikov. In the Ryazan region, the yellow settles in oak trees with rivers flows. On the territory of the Caucasus, Zhelno builds nests in darkskinned forests or firms, sometimes found in pine trees. In the taiga, he prefers to settle in highbarrel forests, most trees there are larch. In Altai, the nests are located in a larch taiga, the bird rises to the mountains quite high up to 2000 m.
Yellow monogamous birds, individuals create couples for several years. When the wedding period starts, vocal activity intensifies. These sounds can be heard only in the morning. Further, birds are activated in early March. During this period, they, sitting in the old hollow, shout for about 30 minutes. The second half that appears also begins to scream or drum. Sometimes to attract a second bird the individual knocks on a tree.
The female lays eggs every day, one thing. Middle egg parameters: 35.1 mm by 25.5. The mass can vary from 11 to 13.5 g. Eggs have a properly oval shape, white shell. In one masonry, usually from 3 to 5 eggs. On the territory of Belarus, laying starts in the last days of April or early May, in the Nizhny Novgorod region at the end of the second decade of April. The female incubates eggs 12 days. The chicks when born are blind, they have no plumages. At first, parents are heated by cubs. Both the male and the female feeds the kids. Food is brought in the esophagus. Before the first departure in the nest usually 4 chicks. They leave their family 26 or 28 days after birth. The success of the reproduction is about 56%, in the Ryazan region this figure is 77%.
In the Dnieper, Zhelona begins to build nests in early April, in the Ryazan region already in midMarch. The process takes from 11 to 16 days. In healthy trees, representatives of the woodpeckers deepen the hollows only by 1-5 cm, and in the affected rot by 3-5 cm. They throw wood chips several times, emissions can be up to 63. Yellow is tied to the nesting area and can occupy it for 5 years. If the birds have chosen last year’s hollow, they clean it and make it deeper. Sometimes the chosen “houses” can leave the yellow and then the woodpeckers are completed and nest there.
Bird nests are in aspen and pines and sometimes in spruce or oak, alder. The diameter of the tree trunk, which is chosen, varies from 48 to 50 cm. The summer of their refuge has an oval shape. “Houses” are located at an altitude of 10 to 12 m. In Nizhny Novgorod, the nest is in aspen, at an altitude of about 8 m. When choosing a hollow, when a partner flies up, the bird flies out of its hiding place, opening the tail. Further, the partner follows his half. This continues until the individuals find the right hollow for nesting. Nuttles the hollow usually a male. In between the construction, birds mate.
Yellow is active in the daytime, birds spend the night in a hollow or under the snow. Representatives of both sexes sleep in one hollow. The distance between “shelters” is usually 1250 m. During the nesting period, this type is territorial, the area of the nesting site varies from 300 to 900 hectares. In other periods, birds live alone.
After departure from the “house”, they fly away or sit on adds. Before departure, birds inspect the area. These woodpeckers are used to use the chosen hollow all winter.
The basis of the diet of the stomach is ants and insects that are xylophages. The bird has ants all year, but in the summer it prefers black and red, and in winter eats tree. In Belarus, yellow eats only these insects in the winter. The bird can eat from 390 to 971 ants at a time. These woodpeckers find ants in anthills or on trees trunks, sometimes these birds hide stumps. In some areas, the yellow is eaten by a permanine hawk. If possible, they feed on the seeds of the Aralia High, velvet of Sakhalin and cedar nuts, sometimes in the diet there are blueberry berries.
In autumn and winter, these birds get food with a hammer. In search of treewriters, they dug funnels in dry trunks, whose depth is approximately 0.5 m. In these seasons, yellow are eaten by bark beetles and barbels, birchbirch zabolniks. In winter, representatives are looking for ants in their heaps, they dig up large meter holes for these purposes.
Enemies and adverse factors
The main enemy is yellow-haired hawk. Sometimes on the data of woodpeckers opens hunting and a marten with a trot. Snakes love to steal chicks. Often, they die yellow due to the fact that they were knocked down by the car.
Economic importance, security
This type has no direct economic significance. Individuals can be distributed to wooden buildings and build “houses” right in the bases of the electrolyte. In biogeocenosis, the value of this species is huge. Old dwellings of Zhelon can use a daw and furry Sych, a starling and a green woodpecker. Squirrels with martens, like bats, use abandoned “houses” for nights.
This type of variability in the color of the plumage is not observed. In the north of Eurasia, the value of individuals increases from west to east. 2 subspecies are distinguished, only one lives in the countries of the former Soviet Union Dryocopus Martius Martius.
The color of the plumage is slightly dull than that of the isolated subspecies that the east of Tibet is inhabited D. m. Khamensis.
one. In a nonnesting period, representatives of the same gender are more tolerant of each other.
2. In the plumage of young animals, flies-rososok are often found, they also live in “houses” of birds, like fleas with footwinds.
3. Imago peanuts and hardwinged are the cohabitants of the venture, they do not harm, but only live in nests and in food.
four. The yellow has 10 primary flower wings, steering only 12. The paws of this bird are fourfingered.